First Crusade The First Crusade As the year 1000A.D. was approaching the strength of Christianity in Western Europe was growing along with its population. The newly reformed and organized Church began to gain great power. A new Europe was being born with the Catholic Church as a force in every area of life. In Christian beliefs, the savior, Jesus Christ was to return to earth and bring judgment on its people. Many clergy members along with lay people believed this would take place in the year 10
Churches of Christ: A Comparative Essay The Churches of Christ: A Comparative Essay Over the past ten years there has been much controversy in the Christian and secular media about the International Churches of Christ (ICC), and the United (or mainline) Church of Christ (CoC). This controversy has stemmed from the ICC's misuse of funds, doctrinal problems, member abuse, and mind-control. The differences between the CoC and the ICC are important for Christians know and understand. The CoC began i
Buddha's Four Noble Truths The Buddha's Four Noble Truths: A Logical Basis for Philosophy The Buddha Shakyamuni was born in the 6th century BCE in the area presently known as Nepal. During his 80 year lifetime, he systematically developed a pragmatic, empirically based philosophy which he claimed would lead its followers towards an enlightened existence. Buddhism is commonly called a religion; however, it differs from the usual definition of a religion in that it has no deities, does not promote
Separation Of Church and State Separation Of Church and State Presently in America there are serious concern about issues dealing with the church and the state. The main issue is the separation of church and state within the United States, dealing with predominantly with the First Amendment and how Americans respond to this amendment. Throughout history, there have been many court cases dealing with the separation of church and state. The Engel vs. Vitale court case also deals with the First Ame
Religious Freedom Restoration Act Religious Freedom Restoration Act In this paper I will describe the Religious Freedom Restoration Act. This Act was used to contradict the decision of the court case of Employment Division v. Smith, which allowed the government to forbid any religious act without giving a reason. The RFRA brought back the requirement that the government provide an adequate reason to forbid any religious act. The government once again had to show that the act was of compelling in
Taoism and Buddhism Taoism and Buddhism Taoism is one of the two great philosophical and religious traditions that originated in China. The other religion native to China is Confucianism. Both Taoism and Confucianism began at about the same time, around the sixth century B.C.E. China's third great religion, Buddhism, came to China from India around the second century of the common era. Together, these three faiths have shaped Chinese life and thought for nearly twenty-five hundred years (Hartz 3
Coercive Prayer in Public Schools Prevent Coercive Prayer in Public Schools The First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America reads: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof." This amendment, commonly called the Establishment Clause, forms the foundation of the right of every American to practice their chosen religion freely and without the interference of the government. In 1947, the Supreme Court issued
HYPERTENSION ************************************************************** Blood pressure "Blood pressure" is the force with which your heart pumps blood through the body. Occasional increases in blood pressure levels are not unusual. Hypertension Hypertension is high blood pressure. When heart beats (contracts and relaxes) it pumps out a certain volume of blood. The maximum arterial pressure, measured in mm Hg, determines the systolic reading and the lowest reading of this pressure is called
Historical Reconstruction Text and Traditions: Work Requirement One Historical Reconstruction Major events in Jewish history to the first century AD 1250 BC Fall of Jerusalem to the Romans. 931 BC Divided Kingdoms. 721 BC Fall of Samaria. 587 BC Fall of Jerusalem, Babylonian captivity. 333 BC Jews under Hellenistic rule. 63 BC Jews under Roman rule. 70 AD Fall of Jerusalem to the Romans. Major events between 50 BC - 100 AD 63 BC - 40 BC Hyrcanus2 rules, but is subject to Rome. 41 BC - 30 BC Anto
Hinduism and Buddhism Hinduism and Buddhism Introduction- Hinduism and Buddhism are two of the five major religions in our world today. They are widely practiced, and have survived for centuries. Both have similarities and differences, as do all forms of religion. Hopefully, in this paper I will show you the basic structure of each religion. I would also like to show how they compare and contrast. Hinduism: Foundation No one is completely sure of where Hinduism was started and by whom. Their old
Buddhism Buddhism 1.) The First Noble Truth - "Dukkha" A.) The First Noble Truth seems to be an intrinsic understanding that all things are impermanent. This impermanence causes us to feel frustrated when we can't hold on to people or things we think we need. This need helps us feel wanted and/or important. Dukkha can also be described as the suffering we experience and see in our lives. Unpleasant conditions such as being sick, seeing our loved ones get sick and die, getting aggravated over thi
Nicholas Ferrar Nicholas Ferrar Nicholas Ferrar was assumed to be born in 1592. I have found that his most probable birth date was in February of 1593. This is due to the usual calendar confusion: England was not at that time using the new calendar adopted in October 1582. It was 1593 according to our modern calendar, but at the time the new year in England began on the following March 25th. Nicholas Ferrar was one of the more interesting figures in English history. His family was quite wealthy
Arianism Arianism A heresy which arose in the fourth century, and denied the Divinity of Jesus Christ. DOCTRINE First among the doctrinal disputes which troubled Christians after Constantine had recognized the Church in A.D. 313, and the parent of many more during some three centuries, Arianism occupies a large place in ecclesiastical history. It is not a modern form of unbelief, and therefore will appear strange in modern eyes. But we shall better grasp its meaning if we term it an Eastern atte
Jehovah's Witnesses' Religion An Analysis Of The Jehovah's Witnesses' Religion When the name of Jehovah's witness arises, most of the public of differing religions, a picture of an overly nice person or group of people all dressed in suits and nice clothes, arrive at your door and offer a sampling of pamphlets, (large or small). To most of the general public, the religion is a far cry from Christianity, but this is untrue, as a visit to one of the services that the congregation provides. Upon ar
Church and State What Went Wrong: An Examination of Separation of Church and State By the middle of the 20th Century, the United States had emerged as a world power. It accomplished this through its leadership in defeating Germany and Japan in World War II. These two countries' main objective was to enslave the world and destroy political, religious, and economic freedom. In Germany or Japan, anyone who disagreed with these goals, or was different was destroyed. This was a common practice in the
What is Fascism and Why does it Emerge? The purpose of this essay is to explain what fascism is and why it emerges. Fascism is a political ideology that consists of an all powering totalitarian government, which has total control of the people, the nation and the economy. The fascist economic system creates an upper class for the owning/ruling class and leaves the working class in a lower state who in turn produce for the elite. To justify themselves as beneficial to the oppressed lower class, t
U.S Foreign Policy Toward Jewish Refugees During 1933-1939 PART I HISTORICAL REVIEW AND ANALYSIS In reviewing the events which gave rise to the U.S.'s foreign policy toward Jewish refugees, we must identify the relevant factors upon which such decisions were made. Factors including the U.S. government's policy mechanisms, it's bureaucracy and public opinion, coupled with the narrow domestic political mindedness of President Roosevelt, lead us to ask; Why was the American government apathetic to
The Rise and Fall of McCarthyism The Rise and Fall of McCarthyism: An Explanation Of How the Media Created and Then Destroyed Joseph McCarthy. INTRODUCTION The U.S. Senator Joseph Raymond McCarthy, was born in Grand Chute, Wisconsin, Nov.14, 1908, and died May 2, 1957, (Grolier, 1996) was best known for his attacks on alleged Communist subversion most notably within the administrations of the Presidents Harry S. Truman and Dwight D. Eisenhower. The activities of McCarthy and his followers gave b
The Importance of the Press The newspaper is a powerful medium. It is powerful because it has the ability to influence the way that people view the world, as well as their opinion of what they see. In peaceful times (or in times of oppression, for sometimes they can appear to be happening at the same moment) the press is usually one of the instruments used by the state in order to maintain the status quo. However, during times of political unrest it is often the press who becomes the major antag
The Presidential Election of 1972 The Presidential election of 1972 had two strong candidates, President Richard Nixon and George McGovern. There were many issues which had a great deal of importance to the election. The Vietnam war and the stability of the economy at the time were two main factors. The election ended in one the largest political scandals in U.S. history, being the Watergate break-in, and cover-up, by President Richard Nixon. The Democratic party had a large selection of candida
The First Amendment: Free of Expression In 1787 our forefathers ratified the constitution of the United States of America, which contains the most important document to any American citizen, the Bill of Rights. The first amendment of the Bill of Rights states: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the establishment thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech; or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the govern
The Death Penalty: Justifiable By: Brendan Moriarty 04/28/96 -Preface: Let it be noted now that this speech is very opinionated. I strongly believe that the Death Penalty is a form of punishment to be used when needed. Which opens up the question, when should it be used? That may be the breaking point in a lot of arguments, deciding when to use the death penalty is a very touchy subject. I believe that only murderers deserve the death penalty, but I do not believe that all murderers should recei
The Bush Administration's Relation With Iraq Prior to Iraq's Invasion of Kuwait: Credibility and Misperception Prior to the August 2, 1990 invasion of Kuwait on the part of Iraq, the United States had questionable relations with Iraq dictator, Saddam Hussein, to say the least. In retrospect, which is inherently advantageous as a 20/20 perspective, questions remain unanswered as to whether or not the United States was too appeasing to Saddam Hussein in the years, months, and days leading up to th
The Brady Bill Introduction The legislative process in the United States Congress shows us an interesting drama in which a bill becomes a law through compromises made by diverse and sometimes conflicting interests in this country. There have been many controversial bills passed by Congress, but among all, I have taken a particular interest in the passage of the Brady bill. When the Brady debate was in full swing in Congress about three years ago, I was still back in my country, Japan, where the
The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) Where do you go if someone is threatening your personal rights? Do you go to the police, or maybe to the government? What if the police and government are the parties threatening your rights? All you have to do is just call the ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union). Sounds like a commercial doesn't it. The ACLU blankets the United States with its legal protection. It is involved in so many aspects of the fight for civil liberties that it is difficult to
The Political Career of Richard Nixon 1. Nixon's Beginning in Politics 2. Emergence in National Politics A. The Hiss Case B. Nixon's Political Obituary C. Resurgence as a presidential candidate 3. The 37th President A. Nixon's Appointment's B. Foreign Policy 1. Nixon's plans for Europe 2. Vietnam C. Domestic Policy 4. Nixon's Second Administration A. Reelection B. Watergate A few weeks after the United States entered World War II a young man named Richard Nixon went to Washington, D.C. In Januar
The Influence, and Views of Netanyahu On The Middle East Peace Plan The middle east has many problems trying to achieve peace between Israel and the Palestinians. The peace process started about four years ago with the Middle East countries. Through the process many people have had major influence on it. One person who might have one of the greatest influences of the peace agreement is Israeli Prime Minster Benjamin Netanyahu. The peace agreement is the biggest topic in the Middle East and he is
Nelson Mandela Introduction Nelson Mandela was a son of a tribal chief. Nelson was a lawyer and worked tire-lessly to free his people. Nelson has been in jail for twenty-six years. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandla was born on July 18, 1918 at Transku area of South Africa. Nelson Mandela gave a speech Sestember 21, 1953. The quotation was adapted from an article by Jawaharlal Nehru: There is no easy walk to freedom anywhere, and many of us will have to pass through the valley of the shadow of death again
Role Of Mass Media In Politics In this discussion I call upon two movies as examples and evidence to examine the role of mass media in politics. The two movies I will use for this basis are The Candidate and All the Presidents Men. Today, the art of governing a society seems to be much dictated or prescribed by what the assemblage of the citizens of the United States say or express to the mass media. Thus, the government and politicians listening to and acting upon our very wishes and desires. O
Margaret Hilda Thatcher Margaret Hilda Thatcher's overwhelming sense of self-confidence and ambition ruled her life from the time she was a small child in Grantham, though her Oxford years and during her early years in politics. It led her to become the first female Prime Minister of Great Britain, and also helped through her difficult political years as "Attila the Hun". Britain's first female Prime Minister was born on October 13, 1925 in a small room over a grocer's shop in Grandham, England.
Legislative Proposal for New Indecency Language in Telecom Bill I. Summary Although the October 16, 1995 legislative proposal purports to regulate ? computer pornography?, the proposal contains fatal flaws which render the proposal at best counterproductive and at worst devastating to on-line communications. First, it prohibits, but fails to define, ?indecent? speech to minors -- a dangerously vague, medium-specific, and, after decades of litigation, still undefined concept, which may include me
Is Government Dominated by Business Special interest groups have dominated government since the advent of America's political system. Special interest groups or lobbies are collections of individuals who join together to pursue common interests and to influence the decisions on public policies. Many people view special interest groups as an integral part of the political process, legitimized by the first amendment of the Constitution. In that way, special interest groups are good. The point that
Censorship From "Obscene" Material Today, in the 1990's, citizens in our society are being bombarded with obscene material from every direction. From the hate lyrics of Gun's 'N Roses to the satanic lyrics of Montley Crue and Marilyn Manson to the sexually explicit graphical content of today's movies, the issue is how much society is going to permit and where we, as a society, should we draw the line. The freedom of speech has always been considered a right, but that doesn't mean that you can sh
Against Censoring Harmless Obscene Language Why the !@#$ would any &*$% head want to censor @#$ &*$% offensive language? I mean what the !@#$?? Did any of that offend anyone? Would it if I had used the actual words? I hope it wouldn't because I sure didn't intend for it to. But then again, if it did, well, don't take this personally, but, you don't need to be reading this. I'm sorry, but I am not forcing you to. No one is. Close your eyes if someone puts it in front of you, sing the Macarena a l
Gun Control Government 2301 02 November 1996 A Well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms , shall not be infringed. Amendment II, Bill of Rights Constitution of the U.S. The Second Amendment has been a major issue in American politics since 1876. In question is the intent of this Amendment. Was it meant to insure that people in general have arms for personal service, or was it intended to insure arms for military service
Gays In the Military Very often political institutions reflect the will of society and set the precedent for norms that will be expected of its members. The United States Military is still enforcing archaic policies which threaten to harm the principles our nation was founded upon. The principles of freedom and equality are those that every American holds closest to their heart, that is unless you are in the military and are gay. The issue of gays in the military has developed into a case of whe
Personal Freedom In the United States of America No other democratic society in the world permits personal freedoms to the degree of the United States of America. Within the last sixty years, American courts, especially the Supreme Court, have developed a set of legal doctrines that thoroughly protect all forms of the freedom of expression. When it comes to evaluating the degree to which we take advantage of the opportunity to express our opinions, some members of society may be guilty of violat
A Democratic Society Throughout time the debate upon which is the best system of government has been an ongoing debate. Somewhere between the realms of democracy, socialism, fascism, communism, and monarchism lies the answer to the perfect system. Traditionally speaking, North America has always tried to remain democratic in ruling. The democratic system, unlike it's alternatives, encourages equality and liberty among the people which in modern society, makes it the most attractive system of gov
Martin Luther King and Patrick Henry: Cry for Freedom Robert Hernandez English 11 Moore-4 October 4, 1996 Although Patrick Henry and Martin Luther King, Jr. are both skilled orators and use similar rhetorical devices to appeal to their audiences, they call for freedom for two totally different kinds of people. Both Patrick Henry and Martin Luther King, Jr. show their strengths as speakers through their use of these rhetorical devices. Among these are parallelism, allusions, metaphors, and rhetor
Constitutional Democracy The basic premise of a constitutional democracy is that government has rules and all of the people have voices. Through free and fair elections we elect candidates to represent us. The Constitution of the United States guarantees us the right to do this, and to live democratically. The framers attacked tyrannical government and advanced the following ideas: that government comes from below, not from above, and that it derives its powers from the consent of the governed;
Communism People all over the world look to the United States for the latest trends, fashions, and technology. The United States have set all these standards during the majority of the last century, by being a government that represents freedom. All over the world people who were trapped in Communist governments hope that one day they too can be as fortunate as the people living in America; to them this freedom is part of their American Dream. The world during most of this and last century was r
Censorship: Gradual Loss of Freedoms Promised In The Constitution I object to the gradual loss of the freedoms promised in the Constitution. This last outrage, the loss of part of our Freedom of speech and assembly, contained within the telecomm act of 96 is just another step along the road to complete police state takeover. We are being treated like recalcitrant teenagers by those that think they know what is best for us, regardless of our feelings. Generally, it is later discovered that the pr
Canada - Of the United States of AMerica by: Mat Harrison for: Mr. Harkins HCN OA1 The Canadian identity has always been difficult to define. We, as Canadians, have continued to define ourselves by reference to what we are not - American - rather than in terms of our own national history and tradition. This is ironic since the United States is continuing to be allowed by Canadians to take over our economy and literally buy our country. Culturally Canada has its own distinct government and instit
American Self Perception vs. The Truth Lee Greenwood, a song writer, describes the emotion involved in American self-perception in a song by saying, "I'm proud to be an American. For at least I know I'm free." Freedom is the founding pillar of the American self- perception. Self-perception is the culmination of how one views oneself. Other aspects which make up American self-perception are wealth, power, and the pursuance of happiness. Self-perceptions, whether confined to the individual or conf
The Four Political Parties of Canada In a country as vast and as culturally diverse as Canada, many different political opinions can be found stretched across the country. From the affluent neighbourhoods of West Vancouver to the small fishing towns located on the east coast of Newfoundland, political opinions and affiliations range from the left wing to the right wing. To represent these varying political views, Canada has four official national political parties to choose from: the Liberals (w
Australians Against Further Immigration OUR VIEW Environment Humanitarianism Economics Health Defences Education Culture Australia's immigration policy is disastrous, proceeding as if there is no balance of payment problem, no foreign debt and no geographical or environmental constraints to population growth. Continued immigration will finally and irreversibly alter the natural and urban environment, economic viability and attitudes and culture of our nation. The people have been consulted on, o
Who Was To Blame For The Cold War? The blame for the Cold War cannot be placed on one person -- it developed as a series of chain reactions as a struggle for supremacy. It can be argued that the Cold War was inevitable, and therefore no one's fault, due to the differences in the capitalist and communist ideologies. It was only the need for self-preservation that had caused the two countries to sink their differences temporarily during the Second World War. Yet many of the tensions that existed i
Whats Wrong With Communism Aaron Dummer 2/24/97 Period 5 I would go to Russia. I would speak on Government. This is what I would say: I am here today to tell you about freedom. I am here to tell you about independence. I am here to let you know about something called a Constitutional Democracy. This form of government, very unlike yours, puts the power to the people. Communism is a very old, and decaying way of rule. Communism, in a broad definition, puts the ownership of farms, mines, factories
The War of Freedom of Expression "Taking on anti-Semites and Holocaust deniers in the sanctified courtroom environment is like responding to someone who calls your mother a prostitute. By defending you raise the question that maybe she really was" Anonymous source drawn from Weiman and Win, 1986. The right to freedom of expression can be described as a war. It is a war that has lasted for centuries and may last for centuries more. It is a war between freedom of expression and social intolerance.
Our Living Shield: The First Amendment The authors of the Constitution of the United States created a magnificent list of liberties which were, at the time ascribed, to most people belonging to the United States. The main author, James Madison, transported the previous ideas of f undamental liberties from the great libertarians around the world, such as John Lilburne, John Locke, William Walwyn and John Milton. Madison and other previous libertarians of his time were transposed into seventeen di