This essay -136525-67945000-9080524130000 has a total of 1919 words and 13 pages.
Third Year 00
-190585661500 Discourse Analysis
-135255-254000 L ecturer
-12573073025000 Dr. Zaki Abdulfattah
Levels of Language
Levels of Language
T here are various different aspects of language structure which are often referred to by linguists as the different levels of language. If we just think of a single sentence for the moment, we would need at least the following levels:
807720163195 Lexis Word M eaning
123634516129000 Semantics Sentence M ea ning
1017270149860 Syntax Sentence Structure
1455420160655 M orphology Word Structure
1236345141605 Phonetics Individual Sounds.
1322070166370 Phonology Phonemes in Context.
138874517462500 G raphology (W riting /Letters )
-97155-8382000 The Sound/Letters L evel
Phonology (speech) and G raphology (writing)
Spoken language physically consists of distinctive speech sounds (phonemes) strung together to make up words. Phonemes are sounds which distinguish one word from another (e.g. /bet/ vs. /pet/ or /bit/) and linguists indicate phonemic transcriptions of speech by enclosing the transcription in slash brackets (/). This level of language is often called the phonemic or phonological level.
Written English has a set of alphabetical symbols which we conventionally associate with the (phonemes) of English , sometimes in a one-to-one fashion, or sometimes in spelling combinations (for example, the two-letter combination ‘ sh - ‘is used to represent one phoneme / ʃ /, as at the beginning of the word ‘shin قصبة ' (/ ʃ in /). The written equivalent to the phonemic or phonological level in speech is usually called graphology .
Girls like cats.
In grapho logical terms, substituting the letter ‘h' for the ‘c' at the beginning of the written word ‘cats' changes the spelling from; ‘cats' to ‘hats', and its spoken equivalent would change from / k a ts / to / h a ts /. In both cases, not only would the sound or letter change, but also the whole word and so the meaning o f the sentence as a consequence.
-97155-8382000 The Grammatical Level
The second linguistic level is that of grammar (by which we mean, the form, positioning and grouping of the elements that go to make up sentences). Most of English grammar is controlled by the order in which words and phrases come in the sentence. This aspect of g rammar is usually called syntax. I f we change the grammar, we also change the meaning.
Girls like cats.
Cats like girls.
In (1) ‘girls' is the subject and ‘cats' the object, and in ( 2 ) ‘cats' is the subject and ‘girls' the object.
Moreover, m ost of the world's languages use morphology to indicate grammatical relations. This is often referred to as ‘adding endings to words'. This sort of grammatical structuring is usually called morphology. Morphology accounts for the building blocks of meaning inside words .
I n the above examples, the adding of the ‘-s' ending indicates plural. Hence the one-word item ‘cats' is composed of two morphemes, cat + plural (s) , and the first of th ese morphemes has 3 phonemes / k a t / and the second morpheme has one, /s/.
-97154-8382000 The Meaning Level
One aspect of meaning is word-meaning (lexis). Changing the ‘c' or /k/ in ‘cats' to ‘h' changes the word and hence the meaning. However , it is also possible to change the word without changing the referent, in which case othe r aspect s of meaning get changed . Moreover, another aspect of meaning is the study of sentence meaning which is often called semantics.
In addition to word meaning (lexis) and sentence meaning (semantics) there is another important aspect of meaning, which is usually called pragmatics. Pragmatics is the study of meaning in context.
Inter-textual R elations
An important aspect of context which affects meaning is the fact that when we talk or write we do so remembering previous texts and speech. Thus we can say something which we know our hearers or readers will connect to another piece of text or talk.
Analysis of Language Levels in Advertisements
In order to explain how language works, we need at least the following levels of language :
Lexis (‘word meaning')
Semantics (‘sentence meaning')
Pragmatics (‘meaning in