1421633-1215610 Stylistics
Definitions of Style & Stylistics:
Stylistics can be defined as t he study of literary discourse f rom a linguistics orientation . It is an area of medi ation between two disciplines or subjects : English language and literature. Moreover, literary stylistics is the study of the language of literary texts . It is concerned with t he expressive values of language .
Style is the area where literary and linguistics studies meet , and that a writer's style is the individual and creative utilization of the resources of language . This definition of style resembles that of some theorists who conceive of style as " The sum total of choices, which the language offers to the individual speaker at each point within the sentence ."
Style is " a person's manner of expressing a given matter" . "S tyle in writing is concerned with choice. Every writer has available the enormous resources of a whole language…. There is no such thing as the correct way of expressing any idea, fact or opinion. Each writer selects the arrangement of words that he thinks well be st express his intended meaning.
So, from the definitions of style came that of stylistics as being the study of the use of language in a piece of writing; it is the study of style .
Pragmatics:
When a speaker uses language to convey a certain message, he has an intention in his mind, which is, sometimes, hidden behind the literal meaning of the uttered words. For example, when a teacher calls a stupid student "a genius person", he doesn't mean that the student is clever, he means the opposite and here through the pragmatic tool of implicature we can understand the speaker's intention:
Gaps between the literal meaning of a sentence and what it is used to convey are studied under the broad name of pragmatics. "Today, the term pragmatics is most directly associated with the study of language use . " It h as come to be applied to the study of language from the point of view of its users. Therefore, w e will take the term pragmatics to cover the study of language use, or the study of the meaning of an utterance in context.
Finally, t he term pragmatics has a very wide scope. The major strands of explorations in the field are: speech act theory derived from the work of Austen and his followers, the notion of implicature and the concept of the Co-operative P rinciple in the work of Paul Grice, and the theory of politeness .


The Major Pragmatic T ools:
Implicature :
Paul Grice has outlined a theory of inferences that hearers draw in order to arrive at a thorough understanding of what a speaker means by an utterance, especially when what is meant goes beyond the literal meaning of what is uttered or when the speaker's words communicate a hidden meaning, other than that of the actual words.
Example:
How is C getting on in his job?
Oh quite well, I think he likes his colleagues, and he hasn't been to prison yet".
Types of I mplicature :
The term ‘ implicture ' is used by Grice to account for what a speaker can imply, mean, or sugges t, as distinct from what he has literally uttered. There are two types of implicature : 1 ) conventional and 2) conversational implicatures . They both add another meaning beyond the meaning of the words uttered, but in the case of conventional implicature , the same implicature is always conveyed, regardless of the co ntext. Levinson lists four examples: b ut, even , therefore and yet. The w ord ‘but', for instance, implicates that what follows will be contrary to expectation.
Conversational implicatures depend on the context. For example: "what a good surprise!" might be said to implicate that someone is shocked to see a certain person he doesn't like. It might implicate satire on other occasions.
The Co-operative P rinciple:
"Make your conversational contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged " .
Grice derives from