Abstract
We investigated the relationship between gender, self-esteem, neuroticism, and self-handicapping. The participants in the study were 31 students in a research methods class. It was a correlational study, and participants were asked to respond to statements on 3 different questionnaires. The questionnaires consisted of the Rosenburg Self-Esteem Scale, the Self-Handicapping Scale, and the Big Five Inventory. Our prediction that there is no difference between male and female scores on the behavioral and claimed self-handicapping scales was confirmed. Our prediction that claimed self-handicapping and self-esteem would be negatively correlated was confirmed. Our prediction that claimed self-handicapping and neuroticism would be positively correlated was confirmed. Lack of gender differences in self-handicapping implied that men and women do not have significantly different gender roles in today's society. In past research, most studies found gender differences where the male scored higher on behavioral self-handicapping and the female scored higher on claimed self-handicapping, or not at all. The results of this study show that it is necessary to do more research on gender differences and self-handicapping and compare it to past research. This could also give us insight into how society has changed, and how gender roles have shifted. This study also provided insight into neuroticism as a predictor for self-handicapping. The literature on this topic is very limited, so our results contributed to supporting a topic not well researched.





Gender, Self esteem, and Neuroticism as Predictors Of Self Handicapping: Distinguishing Claimed From Behavioral Self Handicapping
Self-handicapping refers to actions or statements that individuals make that allow them to avoid effort or responsibility for potential failures or anticipated poor performance that could damage their self-esteem. The individual can then attribute failure to their excuse, rather than to lack of ability or effort. In the unexpected case of success, self-esteem is enhanced because the individual performed well despite the self -handicap. (Feick & Rhodewalt, 1997). There are two subscales of self-handicapping discussed in this study: claimed self-handicapping and behavioral self-handicapping. Claimed self-handicapping involves emotions and feelings. One may claim that they were too sick, socially anxious, or in a bad mood. Behavioral self-handicapping involves actions and/or behavior that directly hurt ones ability to perform well such as creating physical problems or exaggerating already existing ones (Yavuzer, 2015). Many people use self-handicapping to enhance self-esteem, also known as augmentation. Self- handicapping behavior has been an important topic to study in psychology because it explains why people exhibit many behaviors such as procrastination. It is important to have updated research on gender differences and self handicapping behavior, because gender roles in society are constantly changing, which has an effect on how and if, men and women self handicap. It is also important to study neuroticism and self-handicapping, because it is not a heavily researched topic, and because neuroticism is a relatively stable characteristic, so it can be researched on the same individuals over long periods of time. Understanding self-handicapping and the behavior behind it can also increase awareness that it exists, and that will lead to understanding how to avoid using self-handicaps in everyday life. The aim of this study is to look at the relationships between behavioral and claimed self-handicapping with gender, neuroticism, and self esteem.
In a study by McCrea, Hirt, & Milner (2008), a sample of 516 participants were given four scales that assessed different aspects of valuing effort and the importance individuals place on academic achievement, to complete in three separate sessions. An additional study was conducted focusing on the three effort scales. As predicted, both studies showed significant differences between genders. Women were found to value effort more than men, and also reported greater concern about performing well academically. Men were found to behaviorally self-handicap more than women. McCrea, Hirt, and Milner proposed that women do not behaviorally self-handicap because they place value on effort, and they believe that the best outcomes are obtained by putting in effort, which goes against behavioral handicapping. They also found that women are just as likely if not are more likely than men to engage in claimed self-handicapping. The results of their study did not support the predictions of the current study. Their study found a positive correlation between men and behavioral self-handicapping and a positive correlation between