This essay Accdng to Frankfurt, how are the bull-shitter and has a total of 1752 words and 10 pages.
Accdng to Frankfurt, how are the bull-shitter and the liar similar and different.
bullshit is spoken without any concern for the truth. It can be true or false, but the speaker does not really care. they both seek to deceive us about themselves. The liar seeks to make us believe that she believes her lie (that is, she knows some claim P is false, asserts P, and in so doing of course asserts that she believes P), and the bullshitter seeks to make us believe that she is saying something that she supposes is true (she makes claims like P in her bullshit, and we so in a way asserts P and asserts that she believes P, but in fact she does not care if P is true or not).But the liar believes she knows the truth, and then asserts something inconsistent with it. The bullshitter need not know the truth. She need not care.
Accdng to Frankfurt, how are bull-"sessioners" and bull-shitters similar and different.
A bull session appears to be a harmless discussion where people without much seriousness discuss some issues.
Accdng to Frankfurt, why is the connection btw bullshitting and bluffing closer than that between bullshitting and lying?
Bullshit may also be like bluffing and phoniness, in this regard. What is objectionable to phony things is how they were made. The bullshitter is not concerned, in producing his or her product, with ensuring it is made in the right way -- that is, made with attention to facts.
One might prefer bullshit to lying becuase it is more accepted -- there is no clear culpability.
What particular response to the cultural proliferation of BS does Frankfurt regard as itself bullshit, and why?
Bullshit is inevitable when someone speaks of something about which they are ignorant. Perhaps there are many such occasions arising from, for example, the demand on public figures to speak on everything, or from the notion had by some people that we should have opinions on everything.
Bullshit might be a product of a skepticism or relativism that leads people to think that sincerity is more important than any rigorous standards of reasoning.
In the Amoralist, Williams argues that to be consistent, the amoralist must do or avoid what?
amoralist must avoid consistent resentment and disapproval of people treating him in the same manner he treats them. Not liking such treatment, and even fighting back, is acceptable as those reactions do not necessitate moral considerations, but resentment and disapproval are attitudes that generally result from moral considerations, and the more consistent the attitudes are the more likely it is that they stem from some moral precept.
The amoralist must avoid considering himself, or anyone else, as courageous, splendid, or excellent
The difference between the Amoralist and the Immoralist is what?
The difference between an amoralist and immoralist lies not in their respective actions but rather in their beliefs about the nature of morality. The immoralist is recognized by his (immoral) actions, but is conceivable that the behavior of the amoralist confirms to the accepted moral standards in a given society, and what makes him an amoral person is the lack of certain essential beliefs about moral principle and moral values, which presumably, the immoralist still retains despite his behavioral failures,
The amoralist all moral goodness and moral obligations are "of the relative kind", nothing is "good in itself", and no person for him has "intrinsic worth"
person who is amoral does not understand the difference between right and wrong, so it means that person is neither moral nor immoral. A person who is immoral understands the difference but does wrong anyway. Amoral means \'not concerned with morality\' while immoral means \'not conforming to moral standards\' or \'evil\'.
Accdng to Williams, the amoralist is potentially unrecognizably human insofar as what?
The fundamental difference between the psychopath and the amoralist is the ability and desire to care for somebody other than one\'s self. Even if such a care is wholly self-interested and contingent on how one is feeling on a particular day, this fleeting feeling distinguishes the amoralist from the psychopath (Williams 8). And for this reason, Williams dismisses the psychopath as being a possible alternative to living a moral life. The psychopath merely "appalls" us, and he leads us to seek to understand why (Williams 9).
Topics Related to Accdng to Frankfurt, how are the bull-shitter and
Essays Related to Accdng to Frankfurt, how are the bull-shitter and
Yukon JackYukon Jack The short lived life of Jack London is a direct reflection of his literary works major theme, the struggle for survival of strong men driven by primitive emotions. ?To Build A Fire? and White Fang are two of his works that coincide his life experiences and illustrate his literary theme. London was born the illegitimate son of W.H. Chaney and Flora Wellmen in 1876. He never saw his biological father and his mother had little to do with him. Eight months after his birth, his mother marr
Tennessee WilliamsTennessee Williams The playwright, Tennessee Williams, allows the main characters in the plays A Streetcar Named Desire and The Glass Menagerie to live miserable lives which they try to deny and later change. The downfall and denial of the Southern gentlewoman is a common theme in both plays. The characters, Blanche from A.S.N.D. and Amanda from T.G.M., are prime examples of this concept. Both Blanche and Amanda have had many struggles in their lives and go through even more through out the rest
Human Rights Human Rights On December tenth 1948 in the Palis de Chaillot in Paris, the United Nation's General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The document is made up of thirty articles which deal with a series of basic human rights and duties. It follows the premise that the declaration is a common standard of achievement for all peoples and nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teach
Frederick DouglassFrederick Douglass Frederick Douglass was one of the most important black leaders of the Antislavery movement. He was born in 1817 in Talbot County, MD. He was the son of Harriet Bailey and an unknown white man. His mother was a slave so therefore he was born a slave. He lived with his grandparents until the age of eight, so he never knew his mother well. When he turned eight, he was sent to Aunt Kathy, a woman who took care of slave children on the plantation of Colonel Edward Lloyd. When he
Frederick DouglassFrederick Douglass Frederick Douglass was an emancipated slave who passed from one master to another until he finally found the satisfaction of being his own; he went through almost as many names as masters. His mother's family name, traceable at least as far back as 1701 (FD, 5) was Bailey, the name he bore until his flight to freedom in 1838. His father may or may not have been a white man named Anthony, but Douglass never firmly validated or rejected this possibility. During transit to New Yo
Anais NinAnais Nin Anais Nin was a passionate woman, not only in her works but also in her life. The fact that she lived life to the fullest is what made her books so intriguing. Although her diaries were a chronicle of her experience, her fiction showed the reader sides of her while displaying everyone's innermost desires. In her own words Nin says, the role of the writer is not to say what we can all say, but what we are unable to say (Rollins), and she does exactly that. For this reason her works ta
Karl MarxKarl Marx Karl Marx was born on May 5, 1818, in a place called Trier in Prussia. Marx attended the university of Bonn and later the university of Berlin, where he studied law, while majoring in history and philosophy. Karl Marx was married to his childhood friend Jenny von Westphalen, in 1843. Karl met his closest friend Frederick Engels in September of 1844, when he arrived in Paris. Together they participated in the activities of many revolutionary societies, and formed the theory and ideas of
The Life Of Rene DescartesThe Life of Rene' Descartes Rene' Descartes was a French mathematician, philosopher and anatomist. He contributed a great deal to modern ideas , particularly those concerned with geometry. He was known in his time as a mechanist, because he believed that nature could be explained through rational means, and inherent patterns could be found. During his life, Descartes remade geometry and made modern geometry possible. Rene' Descartes was born on March, 31 1596 in La Haye, Touraine, which was a fo
The Life Of Emily DickensThe Life of Emily Dickens Emily Dickinson was raised in a traditional New England home in the mid 1800's. Her father along with the rest of the family had become Christians and she alone decided to rebel against that and reject the Church. She like many of her contemporaries had rejected the traditional views in life and adopted the new transcendental outlook. Massachusetts, the state where Emily was born and raised in, before the transcendental period was the epicenter of religious practice. Fo
Samantha SrinivasanSamantha Srinivasan Philosophy 101-01 Prof. Evans Dec. 16, 1998 Paper Assignment: Topic #3 Nietzsche is known as a philosopher who was very poetic in his writings. He used a real Persian prophet named Zarathustra, as his character within his philosophy. The way Plato used Socrates, Nietzsche used Zarathustra?s mouth to speak his philosophy. An example, how Nietzsche uses Zarathustra in his book is in the chapter entitled ? On the Tree on the Mountain.? Within this chapter, the story represents c
The Life Of Aristotle The Life of Aristotle When Plato died in 347 bc, Aristotle moved to Assos, a city in Asia Minor, where a friend of his, Hermias (died 345 bc), was ruler. There he counseled Hermias and married his niece and adopted daughter, Pythias. After Hermias was captured and executed by the Persians, Aristotle went to Pella, the Macedonian capital, where he became the tutor of the king's young son Alexander, later known as Alexander the Great. In 335, when Alexander became king, Aristotle returned to Athe
Multicultural Education In AmericaMulticultural Education in America America has long been called The Melting Pot due to the fact that it is made up of a varied mix of races, cultures, and ethnicities. As more and more immigrants come to America searching for a better life, the population naturally becomes more diverse. This has, in turn, spun a great debate over multiculturalism. Some of the issues under fire are who is benefiting from the education, and how to present the material in a way so as to offend the least amount of
Freud And Marx Freud and Marx Hey! I got an A- on this paper, so I guess it's pretty good! I put my own personal spin to it in that not only did I compare Freud and Marx's viewpoints, I stated that perhaps what they saw in society was just a reflection of their own biases and personal inner feelings. Freud and Marx it can be argued were both, as individuals, dissatisfied with their societies. Marx more plainly than Freud, but Freud can also be seen as discontent in certain aspects such as his cynical view of
Insights On De Tocquevilles Democracy In America Insights on De Tocqueville's Democracy In America It has been said that a French aristocrat Alexis de Tocqueville, who visited the United States in the 1830's, understood us in a way that few observers (foreign and domestic) have. Furthermore, Tocqueville's Democracy in America is often cited by present-day critics because so many of the observations in it seem extraordinarily suitable even more than one hundred and fifty years later. Alexis de Tocqueville was born 1805 into a minor noble fam
Multiculturalism In CanadaMulticulturalism in Canada Canada has long been called The Mosaic, due to the fact that it is made up of a varied mix of races, cultures and ethnicities. As more and more immigrants come to Canada searching for a better life, the population naturally becomes more diverse. This has, in turn, spun a great debate over multiculturalism. Some of the issues under fire are the political state's policies concerning multiculturalism, the attitudes of Canadians around these policies, immigration, the gl
HealthcareHealthcare Introduction America has a highly developed health care system, which is available to all people. Although it can be very complex and frustrating at times it has come a long way from the health care organizations of yesterday. Previously most health care facilities were a place where the sick were housed and cared for until death. Physicians rarely practiced in hospitals and only those who were fortunate could afford proper care at home or in private clinics. Today the level of health
GreedGreed For more than fifteen years psychologist Julian Edney has visited college campuses across the nation to study the effects of greed in a society where over $100 billion in new wealth accumulates each year. On each of his stays, he would play a game with randomly selected students where 10 metal nuts in a bowl represented ?extra credit?. The students would then take the nuts for a single extra credit point. In this, he promised to double the amount of nuts left in the bowl every 10 seconds.
Carl Gustav JungCarl Gustav Jung Archetypes and Their Influence on the Personality: Carl Gustav Jung Introduction Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) was born on July 26, in the small village of Kesswil on Lake Constance. He was named after his grandfather, a professor of medicine at the University of Basel. He was the oldest child and only surviving son of a Swiss Reform pastor. Carl attended the University of Basel and decided to go into the field of psychiatry after reading a book that caught his interest. Jung bec
Abortion - Reilyism SpeechAbortion - Reilyism Speech The founding of entire nation was forged on the principle that all men are created equal under the law. This is the essence of our Declaration of Independance and the philosophy behind the Constition. We, through history, have made certain that ALL people in this country have equality before the law. We have set uup the premise that all people are equal before the law. Lady Justice is blind to Race, Religion, _________ . We have declared that there is no such thing as
Raves And DrugsRaves And Drugs Generally people associate raves(Underground Techno parties) with designer drugs like Ecstasy(MDMA), Speed(amphetamine) and other acids like LSD. These drugs are called the Techno Drugs for that reason and most of the time have uplifting and sensatory effects. To understand more clearly the relationship between the raves and these drugs, we first have to understand the philosophy behind the Techno era, and a little about the music. Techno, can lift the spirit and become a new wor
Clinton Sex ScandalClinton Sex Scandal Rare is a person that crosses the path of the White House without some emotion of envy or awe. This building epitomizes world leadership and unprecedented power. This renowned leadership may be the only association made by certain countries, while in the United States many see an other significance: Watergate, Whitewater, Kennedy's brutal and mysterious assassination, and today, Clinton's zippergate scandal. When the President of the United States takes oath, he gives up a
AbortionAbortion In Roe et al. v. Wade District Attorney of Dallas County (1973), one of the most controversial cases in recent history, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down all state laws that limit a woman's right to an abortion during the first three months of pregnancy. Justices Rehnquist and White dissented. Mr. Justice Blackmun delivered the opinion of the Court.... This Texas federal appeal and its Georgia companion, Doe v. Bolton, post, p. 179, present constitutional challenges to state criminal a
A Midsummer Night?sA Midsummer Night?s This play reaction is written about William Shakespeare?s A Midsummer Night?s Dream. The play is a comedy and it was copyrighted in 1974, it was published by the Houghton Mifflin Company. In this particular book the play starts on page 222 and ends on 246. The opening of the play is the reader finds out the basic environment that they?re in and the Duke (Theseus) is proclaiming that he shall be wed to the Queen of the Amazons (Hippolyta) in five days. The reader also learns (
Twelfth Night - Character Study :MalvolioTwelfth Night - Character study :Malvolio Character study: Malovlio: Did he deserve the punishment that he received? The character Malvolio (meaning literally I mean ill will) is immediately affected by the implications of his name. His personage is implied directly to be one of negative and somewhat disagreeable nature, which is continued and supported throughout the play, leading to his downfall and mockery which both initially seem to be thoroughly deserved, due to his numerous defects of per
Julius Ceaser - The Importance Of BrutusJulius Ceaser - The Importance of Brutus Julius Caesar Throughout Julius Caesar, Brutus's actions have very extensive ramifications, I wish to review his actions, and the motivating factors behind those actions. I intend to prove that Brutus had a strong and well grounded personae. He had good intentions; however, he made one fatal mistake and that was his downfall. He had many positive qualities. I wish to bring these to the light and delve into how they affected the plot. Brutus is a very sinc
Much Ado About NothingMuch Ado About Nothing Much Ado about Nothing Title Much Ado About Nothing illustrates a kind of deliberately puzzling title that seems to have been popular in the late 1590s (ex As You Like It ). Indeed, the play is about nothing; it follows the relationships of Claudio and Hero (which is constantly hampered by plots to disrupt it), and in the end, the play culminates in the two other main characters falling in love (Beatrice and Bena*censored*), which, because it was an event that was quite pr
TricksterTrickster The Trickster Karl Jung's explanation for the archetypes that surface in cultural and religious literature is that they are the product of what he calls the collective unconsciousness. That thread of consciousness that connects all human beings and cultures around the world. Yet it is not visible to the naked eye, one must look for the signs of it by researching cultures who are long gone and comparing them to each other and our own. Studying it reminds us that all humans are bound tog
Confucius And Guatama SiddharthaConfucius and Guatama Siddhartha The Lives of Confucius and Guatama Siddhartha Dariush Nazem World Civilization 121 September 19, 1996 Professor: Helju Bennett Section Teacher: Sara Abosch The Life Of Confucius Throughout the time span that man has lived on earth, there have been many religions in existence. Two very important and influencing religions that have been around for over two thousand years are Confucianism and Buddhism. The founders of these two religions, Confucius and Buddha, respe
Matthew, Mark, Luke, And JohnMatthew, Mark, Luke, and John Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John Theocentric Studies-Part I February 2, 1996 The four Gospels are neither histories of the life of Christ nor biographies. They are portraits of the person and work of the long promised Messiah, Israel's King and the world's Savior. As portraits they present four different poses of one unique personality. Matthew by the Holy Spirit presents Christ as King, Mark as Servant, Luke as Man, and John as God. Although featuring Christ as King,
Australian AboriginesAustralian Aborigines The Death and Dying Beliefs of Australian Aborigines Although the Aborigines are often classified as a primitive race whose religion is based upon animism and totemism like the American Indians, the Aboriginal funeral practices and beliefs about death have much in common with other cultures. This paper will discuss the death and dying beliefs of the Aborigines that share a common thread with many popular religions of today. Aboriginal beliefs in death and dying are original
Buddhas Four Noble TruthsBuddha's Four Noble Truths The Buddha's Four Noble Truths: A Logical Basis for Philosophy The Buddha Shakyamuni was born in the 6th century BCE in the area presently known as Nepal. During his 80 year lifetime, he systematically developed a pragmatic, empirically based philosophy which he claimed would lead its followers towards an enlightened existence. Buddhism is commonly called a religion; however, it differs from the usual definition of a religion in that it has no deities, does not promote
ReligionsReligions Different Religions Since the dawn of man, people have had their own forms of religion. Be it simple ceremonial burial or complex blessing rituals, each person had their own way to explain the wonders of nature like, how did we come here and what our purpose here was. Another thing that each individual person had was their own morals. Morals are what define a civilization. Labels like peaceful or barbaric are put on different civilizations because of their morals. The morality of each
BuddhismBuddhism Buddhism For over 2000 years Buddhism has existed as an organized religion. By religion we mean that it has a concept of the profane, the sacred, and approaches to the sacred. It has been established in India, China, Japan and other eastern cultures for almost 2000 years and has gained a strong foothold in North America and Europe in the past few centuries. However, one might ask; what fate would Buddhism face had Siddartha Guatama been born in modern times; or more specifically in mode
Moral And Ethical DilemmasMoral and Ethical Dilemmas Moral and Ethical Dilemmas One of the most difficult trials I face in my life are ethical and moral dilemmas. They can be soul-wrenching and searching experiences that tax my character and cause me to really put my money where my mouth is. Sometimes I'm quick to see ethical faults in others, but slow to see them in myself. Other times I see all to clearly my mistakes and wonder why I don't measure up. I believe one purpose for this life is to learn to act for ourselv
Church And StateChurch and State Church and State Jacob Naylor Period 4 Research paper 4 March 1996 The theory of evolution is at odds with the views of many religions, and many people want to allow a religious view of creationism to be taught in the public school system. The foundation of evolution is based upon the belief that the origin of all ordered complex systems, including living creatures, can be explained by natural laws without the initiation or intervention of God. A person who believes in the bibli
Historical ReconstructionHistorical Reconstruction Text and Traditions: Work Requirement One Historical Reconstruction Major events in Jewish history to the first century AD 1250 BC Fall of Jerusalem to the Romans. 931 BC Divided Kingdoms. 721 BC Fall of Samaria. 587 BC Fall of Jerusalem, Babylonian captivity. 333 BC Jews under Hellenistic rule. 63 BC Jews under Roman rule. 70 AD Fall of Jerusalem to the Romans. Major events between 50 BC - 100 AD 63 BC - 40 BC Hyrcanus2 rules, but is subject to Rome. 41 BC - 30 BC Anto
Hinduism And BuddhismHinduism and Buddhism Hinduism and Buddhism Introduction- Hinduism and Buddhism are two of the five major religions in our world today. They are widely practiced, and have survived for centuries. Both have similarities and differences, as do all forms of religion. Hopefully, in this paper I will show you the basic structure of each religion. I would also like to show how they compare and contrast. Hinduism: Foundation No one is completely sure of where Hinduism was started and by whom. Their old
HinduismHinduism Hinduism Introduction Hinduism is a religion that originated in India and is still practiced by most of the Natives as well as the people who have migrated from India to other parts of the world. Statistically there are over seven hundred million Hindus, mainly in Bharat, India and Nepal. Eighty five percent of the population in India is Hindu. The word Hindu comes from an ancient Sanskrit term meaning dwellers by the Indus River, referring to the location of India's earliest know civ
Greek PhilosophyGreek Philosophy Great Religions and Philosophies. : Greek Philosophy. In the 6th century B.C, there began a dualism in Greek Philosophy. The development of Greek Philosophy became a compromise between Greek monistic and oriental influences, in other words, a combination of intellectualism and mysticism. Thus began the pre-Socratic philosophy. The interests of pre- Socratic philosophers were centered on the world that surrounds man, the Cosmos. This was during the time of great internal and exte
Euthanasia In Todays SocietyEuthanasia In Today's Society Euthanasia In Today's Society Your wife of 50 years is suddenly diagnosed with a terminal disease. She lies in a bed, motionless and unaware of her surroundings. The medication to ease her pain has been wearing off. She just lies there in pain and unable to communicate with the outside world. The doctors give her a month to live at the most. What would you do? Would you let her sit in a hospital bed in agonizing pain for the last few months of her life, or do you he
Enochian ScriptureEnochian Scripture Enochian Scripture Should Enochian Scripture and the Necronomicon be considered as a true religion, or just another offshoot of Satanism, cult? The Necronomicon is closest documented translation of the original Enochian scripture, the Necronomicon Manuscript. The Necronomicon was first translated in Damascus in 730 A.D. by Abdul Alhazred. The Necronomicon, is not, as popularly believed, a grimoire, or sorceror's spell-book; it was conceived as a history, and so a book of thin
PaganismPaganism Paganism Paganism is an ancient type of religion which has quite an inauspicious reputation today. There are many types of paganism, most date back thousands of years, which include Wicca, Witchcraft, Paganism, and a few other lesser known and practiced variations. Yet all of these religions are similar and share common beliefs. Wicca is the most common of these, as it also demonstrates the shared belief of doing good that is common to most forms of paganism. Another common belief, is t
Joseph BernardinJoseph Bernardin Cardinal Joseph Bernardin Cardinal Joseph Bernardin was born on April 2,1928, in Columbia, South Carolina. He was son of Mrs. Marie M. Simon Bernardin, and the late Joseph Bernardin. Cardinal Bernardin attended Catholic and public schools and the University of South Carolina in Columbia. He was later accepted as a candidate for the priesthood by Most Rev. John J. Russell, then Bishop of Charleston. He studied at the following Colleges: St.Mary's, St. Mary, Kentucky, St.Mary Semi
Never Cry WolfNever Cry Wolf Never Cry Wolf by Farley Mowat For my book report, I have chosen the novel Never Cry Wolf by Farley Mowat. In this report I will give a brief summary of the novel as well as why I have chosen it for my report. Finally, I will give my reactions to the novel with regards to its analysis of the place of human beings in nature, whether the destiny of humans and nature is intertwined, and how nature is regarded by the different religious and political philosophies demonstrated in the n
Liberalism And FreedomLiberalism and Freedom Liberalism is a force that has produced change from the birth of this nation to the politics of today. Liberal tenets have been a basis of thought and action in American politics since well before the signing of the Constitution. Certainly, liberalism has had to transform in order to remain a legitimate force throughout the years. When considering this transformation, one may ask whether or not the ideas and goals of classical liberalism have been lost in the conversion in
SocialismSocialism The term socialism is commonly used to refer both to an ideology--a comprehensive set of beliefs or ideas about the nature of human society and its future desirable state--and to a state of society based on that ideology. Socialists have always claimed to stand above all for the values of equality, social justice, cooperation, progress, and individual freedom and happiness, and they have generally sought to realize these values by the abolition of the private-enterprise economy (see CA
Paramilitary And Survivalist GroupsParamilitary and Survivalist Groups There are many different forms of militias and paramilitary groups, whose membership and ideology often vary from, place to place. However, what most have in common, is their hatred for the federal government. In recent years, there have been far too many violent acts done by these militias, seeking to prove their points to the government, and the public at large. They have threatened to blow up power plants, government buildings, even the Hoover Dam. They hol
Karl Marx And MarxismKarl Marx and Marxism Karl Marx set the wheels of modern Communism and Socialism in motion with his writings in the late nineteenth century. In collaboration with his friend, Heinrich Engels, he produced the The Communist Manifesto, written in 1848. Many failed countries' political and socio-economic structures have been based on Marx's theories, for example the USSR, East Germany etc. Many people believe that Marxism is not applicable to today's society, as Karl Marx put forward his ideas not a
Personal Freedom In The United States Of AmericaPersonal Freedom In the United States of America No other democratic society in the world permits personal freedoms to the degree of the United States of America. Within the last sixty years, American courts, especially the Supreme Court, have developed a set of legal doctrines that thoroughly protect all forms of the freedom of expression. When it comes to evaluating the degree to which we take advantage of the opportunity to express our opinions, some members of society may be guilty of violat
Capital PunishmentCapital Punishment By: Omer Kassam Thesis One: In principle a case can be made on moral grounds both supporting and opposing capital punishment. Thesis two: Concretely and in practice, compelling arguments against capital punishment can be made on the basis of its actual administration in our society. Two different cases can be made. One is based on justice and the nature of a moral community. This leads to a defense of capital punishment. The second is based on love and the nature of an ideal s