Alternate Assessment
Alternate assessment is based on alternate achievement standards are a form of large scale assessments intended to measure the achievements of students with cognitive disabilities. This students with disabilities are not able to participate in assessments even with accommodations.

Authentic Assessment
Authentic Assessment is a task that typically engages students in authentic real world hands on learning situations and impose high cognitive demands resulting in meaningful learning. Information from these assessments support teachers understandings of the strengths and weakness of the students. It also guides teacher instruction in ways that will develop the knowledge and mental skills to construct appropriate mental models for authentic performance situations. Examples of performance task include oral presentations, debates, exhibits, written products, construction of models, and solutions to problems. Authentic assessment task should be closely aligned with the learning objectives.

Analytic Scoring
In analytic scoring the reader assigns scores to reflect how well the student responds to each of the several aspects of the question or task that should be addressed in the model answer. Analytic scoring provides a more objective assessment of answer quality. It is also less susceptible to extraneous factors and biases such as, handwriting, quality, or a reader being overly affected by the last portion of the students answer.

Anchor Test
Anchor test are a common set of items administered with each of two or more different forms of a test. The purpose of this is to equate the scores obtained on these forms. Anchor papers provide a connection between a rubric narrative and student writing, and an example of what writing at a certains core of the rubric should look like.

Benchmark
Benchmark assessments provides insight into trends in learning and can assist school teachers to understand needs. The use of benchmarks can proffer entry level performance and heel academic strength and weakness.

Bias
A particular tendency or inclination, especially one that prevents unprejudiced consideration of a question.

Competency
Competency is the ability of an individual to do a job properly. A competency is a set of defined behaviors that provide a structured guide. The guide enables identification, evaluation, and development of the behaviors in individuals.

Criterion Referenced Assessment
Criterion referenced assessment refers to evaluating students against an absolute standard of achievement, rather than evaluating them in comparison with the performance of other students. A standard of performance is set to represent a level of expertise or mastery of skills or knowledge.

Competency Based Assessment
A competency based assessment is a test intended to establish that a student has met the minimum standards of skills and knowledge. This make the student eligible for promotion, graduation, certification, or other official acknowledgment of achievement.

Content Standards
Expectations about what the child should be able to do in different subjects and grade levels. It defines expected students skills and knowledge about what schools should teach.

Constructed Response Items
A constructed response item is a exercise that requires examinees to create their own response or products (performance assessment) rather than choose a response from an enumerated set (multiple choice).

Countable Outcomes
Countable outcomes are results that can be quantified. All measures of student outcomes except learning gains, including executive functions skills and affective related measures. Learning gains are gains in speaking, listening, reading, writing, and numeracy. Executive function skills include problem solving, critical thinking, and metacognition. Affective related measured include self- esteem, self-confidence, and interpersonal communication. Examples of countable outcomes include number of people who get jobs and number of people who register to vote.

Criteria
Criteria are guidelines or roles that are used to judge performance.

Curriculum
A curriculum is fundamental knowledge that all students are required to learn in school.

Curriculum Framework
A curriculum framework is part of an outcome based education or standards based on education or standards reform design. The framework is the first step, defining clear high standards, which will be achieved by all students. The curriculum is then aligned to the standards and students are assessed against the standards.

Formative Assessment
Formative assessment refers to any form of assessment such as quizzes, test, essays, projects, interviews, or presentations. The goal is to give students feedback about their work while it is in progress to help students correct errors or missteps, while improving their work along the way to the final product.

Grade Level Equivalent
Grade level equivalent is a school grade level