Associate Program Material
Appendix C

Rhetorical Modes Matrix

Rhetorical modes are methods for effectively communicating through language and writing. Complete the following chart to identify the purpose and structure of the various rhetorical modes used in academic writing. Provide at least 2 tips for writing each type of rhetorical device.

Rhetorical Mode
Purpose ? Explain when or why each rhetorical mode is used. Structure ? Explain what organizational method works best with each rhetorical mode. Provide 2 tips for writing in each rhetorical mode.
Narration The purpose of narration is to tell a story. Narrations can be factional or fictional. The best organizational method would be chronological order. Chronological order allows you to explain things in the exact order they happened which makes it easy for your readers to follow.

First you must decide if you are writing a factional or fictional paper. Make use of transitional words and phrases.

To present strong evidence to help a reader see your point clearly.
The best organizational method for an illustration essay is the order of importance. You can start by using the strongest evidence first, or you can build up to the strongest evidence by starting off with the weakest.

Use evidence that is appropriate to your topic and your audience. Use a variety of words to keep your readers engaged in your writing and your ideas. Asses how much evidence you need to explain your point; giving too much evidence can make your audience to become bored or lost, and providing too little evidence could leave your audience un-satisfied and wanting more.
Description Description is used by writers to make sure their audience is fully immersed in the words on the page. The best organizational method when describing is spatial order which is an arrangement of ideas according to physical characteristics or appearance.
Focus on the 5 senses because we rely on these senses to experience the world. Avoid ?empty? details like good, beautiful, terrific and nice. The use of these type of words can lead to misreads and confusion.
Classification Classification is used to break down broad subjects down into smaller, more manageable, and more specific parts. A classification essay is organized by using its subcategories.

Use strong details and explanations for each subcategory paragraph. Make sure you break any given topic in at least 3 different ways to avoid an overly simplistic classification.
analysis The purpose of a process analysis essay is to explain how to do something and how something works. The organizational method of process analysis usually follows a chronological sequence.

Use time transitional phrases like first, second, third, next, and finally they help orient the reader and organize the content of an essay. Have a peer read over your process analysis to make sure it makes sense.
Definition The purpose of definition is to define something. The structure of a definition essay includes these four basics;
? A word of phrase that requires defining
? A clear definition of the word or phrase
? Examples that illustrate and support the definition
? Strong details of each example

Avoid terms that are too simple, or lack complexity. Definitions of topics, rather than objects make for a more effective essay.
Compare and
contrast The purpose of compare and contrast is to analyze two subjects by comparing them or contrasting them, or both. The best ways to organize a compare and contrast essay are by the subjects themselves, or by individual points. Choose 2 or more subjects that connect in a meaningful way. Choose your structure depending on the nature of the topic, purpose, and audience.
Cause and
effect The purpose of a cause-and-effect essay is to determine how various phenomena are related in terms of origins and results. The best way to organize is starting with the cause and then talking about the effect, or start with the effect and then the cause. Choose an event or condition that has an interesting cause-and-effect relationship. Provide strong evidence.
Persuasion The purpose of persuasion is to convince, motivate, or move readers toward a certain point of view or opinion. The structural components of a persuasive essay are;
? Introduction and thesis
? Opposing and qualifying ideas
? Strong evidence in support of claim
? Style and tone of language
? A compelling conclusion
Avoid a thesis based on a negative claim. Acknowledge points of view different from your own which can foster more credibility between you and the audience.