BIO101 EXAM 4 (REVIEW 4)5/12/17


1) Which of the following is characterized by a cell releasing a signal molecule into the environment, followed by a number of cells in the immediate vicinity responding?
A) hormonal signaling
B) autocrine signaling
C) paracrine signaling
D) endocrine signaling
E) synaptic signaling

2) Which of the following is true of transcription factors?
A) They regulate the synthesis of DNA in response to a signal.
B) They transcribe ATP into cAMP.
C) They initiate the epinephrine response in animal cells.
D) They control gene expression.
E) They regulate the synthesis of lipids in the cytoplasm.

3) One of the major categories of receptors in the plasma membrane reacts by forming dimers, adding phosphate groups, and then activating relay proteins. Which type does this?
A) G protein-coupled receptors
B) ligand-gated ion channels
C) steroid receptors
D) receptor tyrosine kinases

4) One of the major categories of receptors in the plasma membrane reacts by forming dimers, adding phosphate groups, and then activating relay proteins. Which type does this?
A) G protein-coupled receptors
B) ligand-gated ion channels
C) steroid receptors
D) receptor tyrosine kinases

5) Since steroid receptors are located intracellularly, which of the following is true?
A) The receptor molecules are themselves lipids or glycolipids.
B) The steroid/receptor complex can cross the nuclear membrane.
C) The unbound steroid receptors are quickly recycled by lysosomes.
D) The concentration of steroid receptors must be relatively high in most cells.
E) The receptor molecules are free to move in and out of most organelles.


6) Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are found at high levels on various cancer cells. A protein, Herceptin, has been found to bind to an RTK known as HER2. This information can now be utilized in breast cancer treatment if which of the following is true?
A) If Herceptin is found in the breast lymph nodes of the patient.
B) If HER2, administered by injection, is in sufficient concentration.
C) If the patient's cancer cells have detectable HER2.
D) If the patient's genome codes for the HER2 receptor.
E) If the patient's genome codes for the manufacture of Herceptin.

7) Which of the following would be inhibited by a drug that specifically blocks the addition of phosphate groups to proteins?
A) G protein-coupled receptor signaling
B) ligand-gated ion channel signaling
C) adenylyl cyclase activity
D) phosphatase activity
E) receptor tyrosine kinase activity

8) The toxin of Vibrio cholerae causes profuse diarrhea because it
A) modifies a G protein involved in regulating salt and water secretion.
B) decreases the cytosolic concentration of calcium ions, making the cells hypotonic.
C) binds with adenylyl cyclase and triggers the formation of cAMP.
D) signals IP 3 to act as a second messenger for the release of calcium.
E) modifies calmodulin and activates a cascade of protein kinases.

9) An inhibitor of which of the following could be used to block the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum?
A) tyrosine kinases
B) serine/threonine kinases
C) phosphodiesterase
D) phospholipase C
E) adenylyl cyclase

10) Which of the following is the best explanation for the fact that most transduction pathways have multiple steps?
A) Most of the steps were already in place because they are steps in other pathways.
B) Multiple steps in a pathway require the least amount of ATP.
C) Multiple steps provide for greater possible amplification of a signal.
D) Each individual step can remove excess phosphate groups from the cytoplasm.
E) Each step can be activated by several G proteins simultaneously.

11) Which of the following amino acids are most frequently phosphorylated by protein kinases in the cytoplasm during signal transduction?
A) tyrosines
B) glycine and histidine
C) serine and threonine
D) glycine and glutamic acid
E) Any of the 20 amino acids are equally phosphorylated.

12) The function of phosphatases in signal transduction is best described as to
A) move the phosphate group of the transduction pathway to the next molecule of a series.
B) prevent a protein kinase from being reused when there is another extracellular signal.
C) amplify the transduction signal so it affects multiple transducers.
D) amplify the second messengers such as cAMP.
E) inactivate protein kinases and turn off the signal transduction.

13) At puberty,