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Chapter 10 Textnotes
Blood Sports- Refers to bullbaiting and cockfighting were popular leisure time events to watch in eighteenth century Europe. In bullbaiting the bull is attacked by ferocious dogs for amusement. The maimed and tortured animal is eventually slaughtered by a butcher and sold as meat. Cockfighting is another added attraction where two roosters battled it out to determine who is to be the survivor; the loser dies in the end. This attraction was a good chance for spectators to place bets on the lightning fast combat and its uncertain outcome.
Minstrel Shows- An American entertainment consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music, performed by white people in blackface or, especially after the Civil War, black people in blackface. Minstrel shows lampooned black people as dim-witted, lazy, buffoonish, superstitious, happy-go-lucky, and musical.
Itinerant Preachers- Ministers who went from town to town giving fire and brimstone speeches to scare the people into more religious lifestyles.
Uncle Tom\'s Cabin- Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1853 that highly influenced England\'s view on the American Deep South and slavery. This is a novel promoting abolition and also intensified sectional conflict.
Godey\'s Lady\'s Book- A popular magazine marketed specifically for women which contained art, poetry and articles. It\'s also a place where women could get their works published and important topics could be discussed.
Cult of Domesticity- A widespread cultural creed that glorified the customary functions of the homemaker. Married women held immense power in being able to control the morals of a household.
American Colonization Society- Reflecting the focus of early abolitionists on transporting freed blacks back to Africa, this organization established Liberia, a West-African settlement intended as a haven for emancipated slaves.
People (explain their significance in the context of chapter 10)
Washington Irving- an American author, essayist, biographer and historian of the early 19th century. He was best known for his short stories "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" and "Rip Van Winkle", both of which appear in his book The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. Irving has often been called "the Father of American Literature." He is thought of, for instance, as the first American writer to make his living primarily through his creative work, and he is the first American acclaimed by the English literary establishment as worthy of recognition.
James Fenimore Cooper- popular American writer of the early 19th century. He is best remembered as a novelist who wrote numerous sea-stories and the historical novels known as the Leatherstocking Tales, featuring frontiersman Natty Bumppo. Among his most famous works is the Romantic novel The Last of the Mohicans, often regarded as his masterpiece. He was the first important American writer to draw on the subjects and landscape of his native land in order to create a vivid myth of frontier life.
Joseph Smith- was the founder of Mormonism. Smith wrote the Book of Mormon in 1830. Smith claimed that the Book of Mormon was a translation from a gold plate that an angel named Moroni showed him. Smith established the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. He justified polygamy and hoped for a society that would inspire moral perfection.
Charles Grandison Finney- Known as the "father of modern revivalism," he was a pioneer of cooperation among Protestant denominations. He believed that conversions were human creations instead of the divine works of God, and that people\'s destinies were in their own hands. His "Social Gospel" offered salvation to all.
Describe the reasons for the growth of a middle class in the North
American society urbanized drastically during this era. The United States had been a land comprised almost entirely of farmers, but around 1820, millions of people began to move to the cities. They, along with several million Irish and German immigrants, flooded northern cities to find jobs in the new industrial economy. The advent of the wage labor system played a large role in transforming the social fabric because it gave birth to America\'s first middle class. Comprised mostly of white-collar workers and skilled laborers, this growing middle class became the driving force behind a variety of reform movements. Among these were movements to reduce consumption of alcohol, eliminate prostitution, improve prisons and insane asylums, improve education, and ban slavery.
Contrast the North and South in: (20 points)
General social environment
The culture of the North was determined by
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Racism, 19th century in the United States, Slavery, American culture, Blackface, Cultural appropriation, Minstrel show, Uncle Toms Cabin, Plantation era, Abolitionism, Plantation, Cockfight
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