Chapter 11
International and Cross-Cultural Negotiation


Fill in the Blank Questions


1. The term ____________ refers to the shared values and beliefs of a group
of people.
________________________________________



2. In order to understand the complexity of international negotiations, one
must understand how the factors in both the ____________ and ____________
contexts can influence negotiation processes and outcomes.
________________________________________



3. The second implication of the complexity of cross-cultural negotiation
is the tendency for negotiators to ____________ the amount of within-
culture variation that exists.
________________________________________



4. There are six factors identified by Salacuse in the environmental
context that make international negotiations more challenging than domestic
negotiations they are: political and legal pluralism, international
economics, foreign governments and bureaucracies, instability, ideology,
and __________.
________________________________________



5. Countries differ in the extent to which the government regulates
____________ and organizations.
________________________________________



6. Negotiators faced with unstable circumstances should include
____________ in their contracts that allow for easy cancellation or neutral
arbitration.
________________________________________



7. Relative power is not simply a function of ____________ but appears to
be due to management control of the project.
________________________________________



8. The most frequently studied aspect of international negotiation is
__________.
________________________________________



9. The "culture-as-learned-behavior" approach concentrates on creating a
____________ of behaviors that foreign negotiators should expect when
entering a host culture.
________________________________________



10. In the "culture-as-shared-value" approach, cross-cultural comparisons
are made by finding the important ____________ and ____________ that
distinguish one culture from another.
________________________________________



11. In individualistic societies, negotiators are considered
interchangeable, and ____________ (rather than relationship) is an
important consideration when choosing a negotiator.
________________________________________



12. Proponents of the ____________ approach recognize that negotiation
behavior is multiply determined and using culture as the sole explanation
of behavior is oversimplifying a complex social process.
________________________________________



13. Cultures differ in the degree to which __________, or the formality of
the relations between the two negotiating parties, is important.
________________________________________



14. To avoid offending the other party in negotiations across borders, the
international negotiator needs to observe cultural rules of ____________
carefully.
________________________________________



15. Negotiation in risk- _____________ cultures will seek further
information and will be more likely to take a wait-and-see stance.
________________________________________



16. Decision making in group-oriented cultures involves ____________ and
may take considerably more time than American negotiators are used to.
________________________________________



17. One approach of negotiators who have very low familiarity with the
other party's culture is to hire an ____________ who is familiar with the
cultures of both parties.
________________________________________



18. Many types of ____________ may be used in cross-cultural negotiations,
ranging from someone who conducts introductions and then withdraws, to
someone who is present throughout the negotiation and takes responsibility
for orchestrating the negotiation process.
________________________________________



19. The "coordinate adjustment" strategy can be thought of as a special
instance of negotiating the ____________ of negotiation.
________________________________________




True / False Questions


20. Countries can have only one culture; however cultures can span national
borders.
True False



21. The notion that negotiation is both art and science is especially valid
at the cross-cultural or international level.
True False



22. There are six factors in the environmental context that make
international negotiations more challenging than domestic negotiations and
these factors can act to limit or constrain organizations that operate
internationally whether negotiators understand or appreciate their
effects.
True False



23. Political considerations may enhance or detract from the conduct of
business negotiations in various countries at different times.
True False



24. Ideological clashes increase the communication challenges in cross-
border negotiations in the broadest sense because the parties may disagree
on the most fundamental levels about what is being negotiated.
True False



25. In all cross-cultural negotiations, both parties approach the
negotiation deductively.
True False



26. High-conflict situations that are based on ethnicity, identity or
geography are most easy to resolve.
True False



27. The relationship the principal negotiating parties develop before the
actual negotiations will have an important impact on the negotiation
process and outcome.
True False



28. Tangible and intangible factors play only a minor role in determining
the outcomes of cross-border negotiations.
True False



29. Many popular books and articles on international negotiation treat
culture as expected behavior, providing lists of dos and don'ts to obey
when negotiating with people from different cultures.
True False



30. The "culture-as-shared-values" approach has advantages over the
"culture-as-dialectic" approach because it can explain variations within
cultures.
True False



31. Outside of North America there appears to be a great deal of variation
across cultures in the extent to which negotiation situations are initially
perceived as distributive or integrative.
True False



32.