APUSH- Kloster
Chapter 6 Textnotes

NameYufang Huang


Federalists: Supported a strong central government, advocated the ratification of the new constitution; included Alexander Hamilton

Anti-Federalists: Opposed a strong central government, skeptical about undemocratic tendencies in the Constitution, insisted on Bill of Rights; included Thomas Jefferson and James Monroe

Loyalists/Tories: American colonists that remained loyal to British monarchy

3/5 Compromise: The agreement between Southern and Northern states during the Constitutional Convention of 1787, counted three-fifths of a slave for representation purposes (taxation, voting)

Unicameral Legislature: A legislature with only one legislative chamber, as opposed to a bicameral (two-chamber) legislature, such as the U.S. Congress.

Bicameral Legislature: Created by John Adams to counter the appeal of the Pennsylvania Constitution. It is a two house legislature. His system dispersed authority by assigning the different functions of government-lawmaking, administering, and judging- to separate institutions.

Land Ordinance of 1785: A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers and raise money. Part of the Articles of Confederation. The immediate goal of this was to raise money to pay debt through the sale of land in the largely unmapped territory west of the original colonies acquired from Britain at the end of the Revolutionary War.

Northwest Ordinance of 1787: Law created a policy for administering the Northwestern Territories; it included a path to statehood and forbade the expansion of slavery into the territories. The primary effect of this was the creation of the Northwest Territory as the first organized territory of the United States out of the region south of the Great Lakes, north and west of the Ohio River, and east of the Mississippi River.

Treaty of Paris: Treaty in which British formally recognized the independence of the United States; granted generous boundaries (Mississippi River to Great Lakes to Spanish Florida plus a share in the priceless fisheries on Newfoundland); Americans could no longer persecute Loyalists and had to restore their property to them; states vowed to put no lawful obstacles in the way of debt-collecting from British.

Articles of Confederation: The first constitution of the United States of America and legally established the union of the states. Under this the states retained sovereignty over all governmental functions not specifically relinquished to the central government. It was replaced by the US Constitution on June 21, 1788.

Republican Motherhood: An idea linked to republicanism that elevated the role of women. It gave them the prestigious role as the special keepers of the nation\'s conscience Its roots were from the idea that a citizen should be to his country as a mother is to her child.

Shay\'s Rebellion: A rebellion by debtor farmers in western Massachusetts, led by Revolutionary War Captain Daniel Shays, against Boston creditors. it began in 1786 and lasted half a year, threatening the economic interests of the business elite and contributing to the demise of the Articles of Confederation.

Constitutional Convention: called the 13 states to send delegates to Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation(55 showed up); only Rhode Island didn\'t go. Convention called to destroy the Article of Confederation.

Virginia Plan: Also known as the Large-State Plan, set the tone for the Constitutional Convention of 1787 with a proposal for a bicameral legislature with a population-weighted representation.

New Jersey Plan: Devised by William Paterson. Strengthened the Confederation by giving it the power to raise revenue, control commerce, and make binding requisitions on the states. Each state would have one vote in a unicameral legislature.

Connecticut Compromise: The agreement between large and small states during the Constitutional Convention of 1787, kept a bicameral legislature with a population-weighted representation at the lower level (House) and an equal representation at the upper level (Senate)

Electoral College: Consists of the popularly elected representatives (electors) who formally elect the President and Vice President of the United States.

Federalist Papers: A series of 85 articles advocating the ratification of the United States Constitution. It was a primary source for interpretation of the U.S. Constitution, as the essays outline the philosophy and motivation of the proposed system of government. The authors of this wanted both to influence the vote in favor of ratification and to shape future interpretations of the Constitution.

Separation of powers: The structure of the government provided for in the Constitution where authority is divided between the executive, legislative, and judicial branches; idea comes from