APUSH- Kloster
Chapter 7 Textnotes

NameYufang HuangPeriod 4

Presidency Chart - Thomas Jefferson (1801 - 1809)
Significant members of Cabinet
Marbury vs. Madison
Secretary of State: James Madison
Secretary of Treasury: Samuel Dexter, Albert Gallatin
Secretary of War: Henry Dearborn
Attorney General: Levi Lincoln, Robert Smith, John Breckinridge, Caesar Rodney
Secretary of Navy: Benjamin Stoddert, Robert Smith
 In Marbury vs. Madison the Supreme Court announced for the first time the principle that a court may declare an act of Congress void if it is inconsistent with the Constitution. Marbury had been appointed a justice of the peace for the District of Columbia in the final hours of the Adams administration (part of midnight judges). When Madison, Jefferson\'s secretary of state, refused to deliver Marbury\'s commission, Marbury, joined by three other similarly situated appointees, petitioned for a writ of mandamus compelling delivery of the commissions. Chief Justice John Marshall, writing for a unanimous Court, denied the petition and refused to issue the writ. Although he found that the petitioners were entitled to their commissions, he held that the Constitution did not give the Supreme Court the power to issue writs of mandamus. He also proposed the judicial review, which strengthened the judicial branch\'s power significantly compared to before.
 
Describe what Jeffersonian Democracy is
Domestic Events
Jeffersonian democracy is a term used for the political ideals of Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), the third U.S. president, and his followers from the 1790s until the presidency of Andrew Jackson in the 1830s. Jefferson advocated a political system that favored public education, free voting, free press, limited government and agrarian democracy and shied away from aristocratic rule. Although these were his personal beliefs, his presidency (1801-1809) often veered from these values. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Louisiana Purchase (1803): The 1803 Louisiana Purchase was a massive western region of North America, consisting of 828,000 square miles, that was sold by France (Napoleon) to the US for 15 million dollars, about 3 cents per acre. The lands extended from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains between the Gulf of Mexico and the Canadian border, including the port of New Orleans.
  
Lewis & Clark expedition (1804-6): Lewis and Clark were sent by Jefferson to explore land gained from the Louisiana Purchase. Their mission was to explore the unknown territory, establish trade with the Natives and affirm the sovereignty of the United States in the region. One of their goals was to find a waterway from the US to the Pacific Ocean. Lewis and Clark commanded the Corps of Discovery which consisted of 33 people, including one Indian woman and one slave.
  
Hamilton- Burr Duel (1804): Burr, a Republican, and Hamilton, a Federalist, had been bitter political rivals for years, beginning when Burr took Hamilton\'s father-in-law\'s seat in Congress. On July 11, 1804, they met on the dueling grounds at Weehawken, New Jersey, to fight the final skirmish of a long-lived political and personal battle. When the duel was over, Hamilton would be mortally wounded, and Burr would be wanted for murder.
Chase impeachment trial (1804): Samuel Chase was a Federalist justice on the Supreme Court in the early 1800s. Thomas Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans were frustrated with some of his decisions, so in 1804 the House of Representatives voted to impeach him. In 1805 the Senate voted to NOT remove Samuel Chase from the Supreme Court. This decision was incredibly significant. This helped establish the precedent that judges would not be impeached based on their views.
  
Burr Conspiracy and trial (1807): Burr\'s attempt to take over Louisiana and secede from the nation (take Mexico from Spanish control and found a new nation); established the definition of treason and Burr was not found guilty because he never actually took up arms (not enough evidence).
   
Foreign Problems
Conflict with the Barbary Pirates (1801 - 05): The Barbary Wars (or Tripolitan Wars) were two wars between the United States of America and Barbary States in North Africa in the early 19th century. At issue was the pirates\' demand of tribute from American merchant vessels in the Mediterranean Sea. American naval power attacked the pirate cities and extracted concessions of fair passage from their rulers.

British Orders in Council (1806-07): The Orders in Council was a law passed by the English Parliament in 1793. It was when the British were fighting the French. The British closed off all port vessels that France went through so they couldn\'t get supplies. American ships were