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Chapter 9 Textnotes
Cash crop- Exclusive crop only grew in a certain region. Contributed to the economy boom of America - cash crop examples are rice, sugar, cotton, and tobacco.
Planter aristocracy- South was governed by the select of few rich people, who were the head of the southern society. They determined the political, economic, and even the social life of their region. The wealthiest had home in towns or cities as well as summer homes, and they traveled widely, especially to Europe, where children got good education. They were defined as the cotton magnates, the sugar, rice, and tobacco, the whites who owned at least 40 or 50 slaves and 800 or more acres.
Cotton gin (significance)- a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, a job formerly performed by hand. The fibers are processed into cotton goods, and the seeds may be used to grow more cotton or to produce cottonseed oil; if they are badly damaged, they are disposed of. The first modern industrial gin, created by American inventor Eli Whitney in 1793, used a combination of a wire screen and small wire hooks to pull the cotton through, while brushes continuously removed the loose cotton lint to prevent jams. Important invention that contributed to the industrial revolution.
Gabriel\'s rebellion (1800)- A literate black slave that lived in the Richmond area launched a large scale slave revolt. Governor Monroe quickly crushed the rebellion. Result was slaves could no longer congregate on Sundays without supervision.
"King" Cotton- The term used to describe cotton\'s economic, agricultural, political, and social dominance in the South; South\'s chief export and major source of income for the whole country.
People (explain their significance in the context of chapter 8)
Eli Whitney- an American inventor best known for inventing the cotton gin. This was one of the key inventions of the Industrial Revolution and shaped the economy of the Antebellum South. Whitney\'s invention made upland short cotton into a profitable crop, which strengthened the economic foundation of slavery in the United States. Despite the social and economic impact of his invention, Whitney lost many profits in legal battles over patent infringement for the cotton gin. Thereafter, he turned his attention into securing contracts with the government in the manufacture of muskets for the newly formed continental army. He continued making arms and inventing until his death in 1825.
Denmark Vesey- as a free slave in South Carolina, Vesey was a mulatto who inspired a group of slaves to seize Charleston, South Carolina in 1822, but one of the group members betrayed him and he and his thirty-seven followers were hanged before the revolt started. This aggravated the anxiety about possible federal interference with the institution of slavery.
Nat Turner- Slave from VA that led group of slaves to kill their slave holders and their families. Turner caught and executed on Nov.11, 1831. This revolt led to slave states\' striker control on slave population.
Compare and contrast the 4 regions of the Antebellum South
All 4 regions of the Antebellum South had one main cash crop - cotton. These regions permitted slavery and slaves were expected to do anything of their master\'s wishes. In the Deep South, slaves made up 75% of the population, and slaves were sold from the upper south to the Deep South. All revolts drove these regions to tighten already strict slave codes. Thousands of slaves from the low country had either run away or had been carried off by the British. Unlike Chesapeake, the low country planters didn\'t emancipate their slaves and imported as many Africans as they could before the scheduled ending of slave trade in 1808 (Chesapeake, Maryland and Delaware planters began to set their slaves free). On the other hand, South Carolina and Georgia had large farms and lots of slaves, which then later developed into the task system.
Why did industry develop in the North but not really in the South?
The South, like other slave societies, did not develop urban centers for commerce, finance, and industry on a scale equal to those found in the North. Southern cities were small because they failed to develop diversified economies. Unlike the cities of the North, southern cities rarely became processing or finishing centers and southern ports rarely engaged in international trade. Their primary functions were
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Slavery in the United States, African slave trade, Slavery, Cultural history of the United States, Racism, Cotton gin, Abolitionism, Plantation era, Atlantic slave trade, Eli Whitney, Denmark Vesey, Cotton
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