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Exam 2 Essay Question
November 9th, 2016
History of Ancient Rome
2. Choose one of the following sets and discuss the connection between these two men. Remember to include political and military connections as well as their political alliances if relevant: Antony and Octavius
Following the decease of the beloved Julius Caesar, there stood 2 developing leaders in Rome, Italy. These 2 chaps searching for definitive control of authority in Rome were acknowledged as Marcus Antonius and Octavian. Antony and Octavius established the 2nd Triumvirate with help from Lepidus. They all decided to split the land between each other in order to acquire harmony. This alliance was created to avenge Julius Caesar's death. By doing so they overthrew the Republic, Brutus and Cassius, which there after a civil war was bound to break out between the two, Octavius and Antony. Sir Antony owned the western provinces, while Octavius had possession of the eastern provinces. On the other hand, Octavius was increasing his support in the West, where as Antony was starting to gain feelings for a woman named Cleopatra in Egypt. Sir Antony was failing in both Parthia and Egypt, which continued to give Octavius more support and then Antony split up the Roman provinces with Cleopatra, which made the Roman Citizens fuming. Octavius continued to increase support of the Romans, while Antony's supports continued to sway away from him. However, at this time Octavius did not want to engross in battle and then later on Antony's will was published, which disclosed the facts that Cleopatra's children were to be his heirs and that he wanted to be buried next to Cleopatra. Once Octavius found this out he immediately declared war against Antony. Then, Antony made it public that the alliance amongst him and Octavian was officially concluded, which then of course a civil war broke out. Now it was the battle of Octavius' Roman Army versus Antony and Cleopatra's Army. This legendary battle became known as the Battle of Actium, it is also known as the Final War of the Roman Republic. Octavius' Roman Army consisted of an army of 50,000 men and a fleet with 250 ships. Antony's army was made up of 80,000 men and had a fleet of 500 ships with the help of Cleopatra. This last battle between Octavius and Antony was predominantly a naval engagement. Octavius and his general Agrippa destroyed Antony's naval fleet even with half of the amount of ships, causing both Antony and Cleopatra to flee. Octavius reestablished stability to the eastern provinces that Antony had tainted. Shortly after the loss, both Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, rather than be a Roman prisoner. Ultimately, Antony and Octavius unsuccessful alliance led to this civil war and the overthrow of Antony marked an era of peace in the Roman Empire under Octavius.
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