EXAM 3 REVIEW 404/21/17

1) What is the reason that linked genes are inherited together?
A) They are located close together on the same chromosome.
B) The number of genes in a cell is greater than the number of chromosomes.
C) Chromosomes are unbreakable.
D) Alleles are paired together during meiosis.
E) Genes align that way during metaphase I of meiosis.

2) Three genes at three loci are being mapped in a particular species. Each has two phenotypes, one of which is markedly different from the wild type. The unusual allele of the first gene is inherited with either of the others about 50% of the time. However, the unusual alleles of the other two genes are inherited together 14.4% of the time. Which of the following describes what is happening?
A) The genes are showing independent assortment.
B) The three genes are linked.
C) The first gene is linked but the other two are not.
D) The first gene is assorting independently from the other two that are linked.
E) The first gene is located 14.4 units apart from the other two.

3) The centimorgan ( cM ) is a unit named in honor of Thomas Hunt Morgan. To what is it equal?
A) the physical distance between two linked genes
B) 1% frequency of recombination between two genes
C) 1 nanometer of distance between two genes
D) the distance between a pair of homologous chromosomes
E) the recombination frequency between two genes assorting independently

4) Recombination between linked genes comes about for what reason?
A) Mutation on one homolog is different from that on the other homolog.
B) Independent assortment sometimes fails because Mendel had not calculated appropriately.
C) When genes are linked they always "travel" together at anaphase.
D) Crossovers between these genes result in chromosomal exchange.
E) Nonrecombinant chromosomes break and then re-join with one another.

5) Why does recombination between linked genes continue to occur?
A) Recombination is a requirement for independent assortment.
B) Recombination must occur or genes will not assort independently.
C) New allele combinations are acted upon by natural selection.
D) The forces on the cell during meiosis II always result in recombination.
E) Without recombination there would be an insufficient number of gametes.

6) One possible result of chromosomal breakage is for a fragment to join a nonhomologous chromosome. What is this alteration called?
A) deletion
B) transversion
C) inversion
D) translocation
E) duplication

7) In humans, male-pattern baldness is controlled by an autosomal gene that occurs in two allelic forms. Allele Hn determines nonbaldness , and allele Hb determines pattern baldness. In males, because of the presence of testosterone, allele Hb is dominant over Hn . If a man and woman both with genotype HnHb have a son, what is the chance that he will eventually be bald?
A) 0%
B) 25%
C) 33%
D) 50%
E) 75%

8) What is the source of the extra chromosome 21 in an individual with Down syndrome?
A) nondisjunction in the mother only
B) nondisjunction in the father only
C) duplication of the chromosome
D) nondisjunction or translocation in either parent
E) It is impossible to detect with current technology.

9) What is a syndrome?
A) a characteristic facial appearance
B) a group of traits, all of which must be present if an aneuploidy is to be diagnosed
C) a group of traits typically found in conjunction with a particular chromosomal aberration or gene mutation
D) a characteristic trait usually given the discoverer's name
E) a characteristic that only appears in conjunction with one specific aneuploidy

10) Which of the following is known as a Philadelphia chromosome?
A) a human chromosome 22 that has had a specific translocation
B) a human chromosome 9 that is found only in one type of cancer
C) an animal chromosome found primarily in the mid-Atlantic area of the United States
D) an imprinted chromosome that always comes from the mother
E) a chromosome found not in the nucleus but in mitochondria

The following is a map of four genes on a chromosome.

Figure 15.1

11) Between which two genes would you expect the highest frequency of recombination?
A) A and W
B) W and E
C) E and