Fascism and its Political Ideas



Fascism is a form of counter-revolutionary politics that first

arose in the early part of the twentieth-century in Europe. It was a

response to the rapid social upheaval, the devastation of World War I,

and the Bolshevik Revolution. Fascism is a philosophy or a system of

government the advocates or exercises a dictatorship of the extreme

right, typically through the merging of state and business leadership,

together with an ideology of aggressive nationalism. Celebrating the

nation or the race as an organic community surpassing all other

loyalties. This right-wing philosophy will even advocate violent

action to maintain this loyalty which is held in such high regards.

Fascism approaches politics in two central areas, populist and

elitist. Populist in that it seeks to activate "the people" as a whole

against perceived oppressors or enemies and to create a nation of

unity. The elitist approach treats as putting the people?s will on one

select group, or most often one supreme leader called El Duce, from

whom all power proceeds downward. The two most recognized names that

go along with Fascism are Italy?s Benito Mussolini and Germany?s Adolf

Hitler.

The philosophy of Fascism can be traced to the philosophers

who argue that the will is prior to and superior to the intellect or

reason. George Sorel, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Georg Hegal are main

philosophers who?s beliefs and ideologies greatly influenced the

shaping of Fascist theory. Sorel (1847-1922) was a French social

philosopher who had a major influence on Mussolini. Sorel believed

that societies naturally became decadent and disorganized. This decay

could only be slowed by the leadership of idealists who were willing

to use violence to obtain power. Nietzsche (1844-1900) theorized that

there were two moral codes: the ruling class ( master morality) and

the oppressed class (slave morality). Nietzsche believed the ancient

empires were developed from the master majority and the religious

ideas and views grew out the slave majority. The idea of the "overman"

or superman which symbolized man at his most creative and highest

intellectual capacity was brought about by Nietzsche as well. Hegal

believed people should sacrifice for the community. He thought war was

also necessary to unify the state, with peace bring nothing but a weak

society. Hegal also sustained that laws should be made by the

corporate organization of the state.

Fascism values human nature in a group for the benefit of the

community. The group as a whole is called the human will, which is

ruled by a select group or one leader, with the power being passed

down from top to bottom. Fascism seeks to organize an organization led

mass movement in an effort to capture the state power. When the power

is in the firm grip of the ruler, or IL Duce, the government will be

used to control the population and everything in it so the community

will be benefited.

Fascism?s ideal government would be fashioned around the good

of the community or nation. Everyone would work for the benefit of the

nation and that is all. Regularly this would take place with the

merging of the state and business leadership, with concern only of the

nation. In this the nation will also take care of its members if the

need should arise. This could be money ,shelter, food, or any other

need that might come about.

The ideology of Fascism has been identified with

totalitarianism, state terror, fanaticism, arranged violence, and

blind obedience. Adolf Hitler established his own personal ideology,

Mein Kampf, which means My Struggle. The book was written while Hitler

was in prison and not yet in power. Mussolini fashioned his ideology

after he took control of Italy. Despite their two different angles on

the use of Fascism Hitler and Mussolini both worked similarly on how

they established their principles in the same basic manner. Their

principles came from basic responses to various issues the leaders

faced.

Fascism is an authoritarian political movement that developed

in Italy and other European countries after 1919 as a reaction against

the profound political and social changes brought about from

inflation, and declining social, economic, and political conditions.

Italy, which was ready for a new political aspect, was the birthplace

of fascist ideology. Benito Mussolini was the man who brought this

ideology to Italy. Mussolini had been looking for the perfect

opportunity to take complete control of the country and now was the

time to do so. Mussolini said "Fascism, which was not afraid