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"How Organizational Culture Impacts Productivity"
Organizations consist of two or more people who form a coordinated unit to which they work together to achieve common goals (Gibson,2009). In order to understand the effects of organizational culture on productivity the very basic definition of an organization should be known. Organizations can be described as ?Entities that enable society to pursue accomplishments that can?t be achieved by individuals acting alone? (Gibson, 2009,p.5). Within an organization a ?structure is formed as a formal pattern of how peoples jobs are grouped together and processes, activities that give life to the organization through communication, decision making, and organizational development, takes place ?(Gibson, 2009,p.7). Structure and processes affect organizational behavior and the emergent of culture, ?the pattern of basic assumptions used by individuals and groups to deal with the organizations and its environment? (Gibson, 2009,p.7). This is what motivates an individual, defines appropriate bonds and behaviors, and sets the template of how a company should process information, values, and internal relations Gibson, 2009).
?The culture of an organization defines its personality, atmosphere, or ?feel? ?(Gibson, 2009,p.7). This culture may be positive or negative depending of the effect on the organization. ?If the culture assist in improving productivity it is seen as positive, yet if the culture hinders behavior, disrupts group effectiveness, and hampers the impact of a well-designed organization it is negative? Gibson, 2009,p.8). Organizational culture is what employees perceive therefore creating a pattern of beliefs, values, and expectations (Gibson, 2009) .The behavior of the individuals which make up the organization or guided by the conscious, affective desires or wants known as values Gibson, 2009,p.32). If these values, attitudes, or share expectations are not shared within a organization the effects maybe detrimental to the group. If the culture is cohesive the impact is positive in creating a sense of stability, encourages and reinforces organizational identity, sense of loyalty and strive for hard work and commitment to a team-like structure Gibson,2009).. Southwest Airlines is a company well known for their distinct strong culture that influences everyone within the firm due to the closeness of the employees who emphasize a ?work hard and play hard attitude? (Gibson,2009) .
?Some organizations have a dominant type of culture; other organizations have multiple cultures working simultaneously in different locations, departments, or projects? (Gibson, 2009,p.36). Although there is no fixed culture, employees may prefer a particular culture and this is where conflict may evolve. The person-culture alignment may because to stressful therefore causing an individual to leave the organization Gibson,2009). There are four types of cultures: Bureaucratic, Clan, Entrepreneurial and Market culture Gibson,2009) . ?Such organizations like the Military and government are examples of a Bureaucratic culture because they emphasize rules, policies, procedures, centralized decision making and chain of commands ?Gibson, 2009,p.36). This can be seen as positive in terms of aligning the employees? beliefs and obedience of the processes and procedures. On the other hand ?customers may describe an organization with a bureaucratic culture as negative because it?s policies don?t satisfy the customer?s individual situation, and the employees take refuge behind the idea that the policy is the same for all customers? (http://www.busting-bureaucracy.com/excerpts/effects.html). In the customer- oriented organization this culture me have more negatives then positives.
Clan culture represents, ?being part of a working family, following traditions, and rituals, teamwork, spirit, self-management, and social influence? (Gibson, 2009,p.36). ?Employees are likely to take lower pay and stay around longer if they are receiving the emotional and social support that a Clan culture provides. Nordstrom depicts the positive affects the clan culture can have on the behavior and performance of the employees. ?New employees can observe teamwork, tradition, and rituals that perpetuate Nordstrom?s commitment to customer service? (Gibson, 2009,p.36). ?However on the negative side, a foundation that finds itself squarely in this category might be failing to learn from communities and other stakeholders? Ajula, 2009.
Entrepreneurial culture ?is a system of shared values, beliefs and norms of members of an organization, including valuing creativity and tolerance of creative people, believing that innovating and seizing market opportunities are appropriate behaviors to deal with problems of survival and prosperity, environmental uncertainty, and competitors? threats, and expecting organizational members to behave accordingly? (McGuire, 2003). Sincere value in creation through innovation and change are the prime examples of why 3M is an accurate example of entrepreneurial culture. ? ?Never kill a product idea? is the internal philosophy captured by
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Human resource management, Industrial and organizational psychology, Corporatism, Labour law, Organizational culture, Organizational behavior, Organization development, Productivity, Organizational identification, Information culture, improving productivity, share expectations, information values, group effectiveness, organizational culture, definition of an organization, organizational behavior, organizational development, gibson, basic assumptions, desires, decision making, cult, bonds, entities, personality, attitudes, atmosphere, jobs
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