Howard Gardner Yufang Huang
Howard Gardner is the Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education in Boston, MA. On the Project Zero site (Begun at Harvard Graduate School in 1967 by Nelson Goodman with the aim of improving learning in the Arts.) Gardner records that he was born in Scranton, PA., in 1943. He trained at Harvard University, originally as a developmental psychologist and later in neuropsychology. His main area of research interest at that time was cognition, especially the capacity to use symbols, working with both normal and gifted children, and brain-damaged adults. He is married to Ellen Winner, a developmental psychologist who teaches at Boston College, and they have four children.
The theory of multiple intelligences evolved from the two streams of Gardner\'s early research and crystallized through the Project Zero work of the 1970\'s culminating in the publication of "Frames of Mind". Essentially, the theory challenges the view of a unitary human intelligence measurable through psychometric tests. Gardner came to view intelligence "through the biologists lens" as a collection of discrete cognitive competences. Originally there were seven itemized in Frames of Mind but these have been added to over the years, and currently there are eight, or perhaps nine. (Frames of Mind: Visual-Spatial, Bodily-kinesthetic, Musical, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, Linguistic, Logical-Mathematical)
This theory has emerged from recent cognitive research and documents to the extent which students possess different kinds of minds and therefore learn, remember, perform, and understand in different ways, according to Gardner. According to this theory, we are all able to know the world through language, logical-mathematical analysis, spatial representation, musical thinking, the use of the body to solve problems or to make things, an understanding of other individuals, and an understanding of ourselves. Where individuals differ is in the strength of these intelligences - the so-called profile of intelligences -and in the ways in which such intelligences are invoked and combined to carry out different tasks, solve diverse problems, and progress in various domains.
Gardner says that these differences challenge an educational system that assumes that everyone can learn the same materials in the same way and that a uniform, universal measure suffices to test student learning. Indeed, as currently constituted, our educational system is heavily biased toward linguistic modes of instruction and assessment and, to a somewhat lesser degree, toward logical-quantitative modes as well. Gardner argues that a contrasting set of assumptions is more likely to be educationally effective. Students learn in ways that are identifiably distinctive. The broad spectrum of students - and perhaps the society as a whole - would be better served if disciplines could be presented in a numbers of ways and learning could be assessed through a variety of means.

Gardner, Howard. "Reflections on Multiple Intelligences: Myths and Messages." Gardner, H. (1995).
Reflections on Multiple Intelligences: Myths and Messages. Phi (1995): 1-11. Harvard. Web.