Husnain A. Baig
Prof. Lewis
30th September, 2014

Identify the approximate geographical location and the historical importance of the Sultanate of Rum .
Sultanate of Rum is considered as one of the most important Muslim kingdoms of the past because of its size, resources, culture and impact on the history. Due to its location, the Sultanate economy based on trade through sea ports built near the sea. Beside this, it is also well known for the building of number of road sides inns on different trade routes. During the peak time of Sultanate of Rum, it covered the territory stretching from the Antalya and Alanya which were on the shores of Mediterranean Sea to the territory of Sinop on the Black Sea. Later with the expansion of the Sultanate in the east side, it reached Lake Van.
Identify some of the major historical events that marked the decline of the Byzantine Empire before its final collapse in 1453 .

The collapse of Byzantine Empire is based on many historical events which caused disintegration. The first and foremost event which destabilized the empire was the loss of the Western Roman Empire. As a result of which empire lost important cities like Rome. It also diverted the attention of the empire from external threats, thus making it more vulnerable to attack. Beside this, the rise of Islam in 11th to 15th century gave Arabs a new desire to conquest. Arabs invasion led to the loss of some of the most important cities, like Egypt, which were considered as backbone of the Empire economy. In addition to that, the arrival of the Turks led to the rise of Ottoman Empire, who raided and occupied poorly defended land of Byzantine empire. Another important reason of collapse of Empire was the Crusades which caused weakening of Byzantine Empire.

Name some of the duties expected of and powers possessed by the early Ottoman emperors .

The kingdom of ottoman was composed of civil and military administration. Both administrations had their own working principles but Sultan was the highest position in the system. Beside this the highest position in Islam, Caliphate, was claimed by the sultan whose main duty was to ensure the rule of God in the kingdom and protect the rights of people under Islamic laws. In addition to that, the sultans also claimed the title of Padishah, or lords of kings served as the Empire's sole regent and were considered to be the embodiment of its government, though he did not always exercise complete control.
Identify how the Ottoman rulers managed or governed a vast empire of many different languages and cultures

Identify some of the innovations introduced in government and administration by Ottoman ruler Suleyman I during his long reign from 1520-66

Suleyman 1 was one of the most important Sultan of Ottoman dynasty. During his reign from 1520-66, he fought number of fight which enlarged his empire to great extent. He was really good with war strategies which helped him in the expansion of his kingdom. His military expended both to the east and west of the kingdom. Besides expansion of the land, he was also famous for his re construction of the legal system of the Ottoman Empire. He made a lot of legislation, by closely revising the all the laws and judgments of the past Ottoman rulers. After complete revision of the laws, he gave single code of conduct which covered all the fundamentals of the society. The main target of this "Ottoman Law ‘was to provide justice to the people in the light of Islam. In his time, he was regarded as most important ruler and lawgiver by both his people and Europeans.

Identify some of the motivations behind the Chinese expeditions to distant lands undertaken by Zheng Hu .

The Yongle emperor during his reign was very much inclined towards eunuchs. He wanted them to participate more in kingdom's affairs, but Confucius bureaucrats were never in favor of eunuchs. In order to make eunuchs part of government, he ordered the construction of huge fleet of ship to go around Indian ocean and made Zheng Hu, the leader of expedition. Although Yongle's decision was against the policies of the kingdom, but