Jamaican art dates back to Jamaica's indigenous Taino Indians who created zemis, carvings of their gods, for ritual spiritual purposes. The demise of this culture after European colonisation heralded a new era of art production more closely related to traditional tastes in Europe and created by itinerant artists keen to return picturesque images of the 'new world' to Europe. Foremost among these were Agostino Brunias, Philip Wickstead, James Hakewill and J. B. Kidd. Perhaps the earliest artist to take a more Jamaican centered approach to the island culture was Isaac Mendes Belisario (1795-1849), whose portfolio of lithographs Sketches of Character, In Illustration of the Habits, Occupation, and Costume of the Negro Population in the Island of Jamaica, published in collaboration with the lithographer Adolphe Duperly in 1837-38, documents activities of slaves immediately after their emancipation.