This essay Jed Smart has a total of 1770 words and 17 pages.
March 8, 1999
Summary of Pages 65-74, A Nation of Immigrants: An Overview of the
Economic and Political Conditions of Selected Racial and Ethnic Groups.
The North American economic development has seen several stages of
development. The first stage of economic development was a
plantation-slave economy mixed with mercantilism, the second stage of
development was a competitive industrial economy, and the stage third
stage of economic development is multinational capitalism.
Economic institution and related governmental actions have formed the
tides of migration and the resulting patterns of immigrant adjustment.
The original groups of inhabitants in North America were Native
Americans. These Native people lost much of their land and many of their
lives to the vicious European invasions.
Many groups of immigrants came to America, yet each group had left
their native country for various reasons and under various
circumstances. Some immigrant groups entered America as slaves, others
came to work at low paying labor jobs, and some came as entrepreneurs.
These various groups were discriminated against at varying level,
depending on the resources the group brought with them. Those immigrants
who made the journey to America on their own freewill with economic
resources found that it was much easier to find good jobs than those
immigrants with less than such freewill and resources. Small business
opportunities unfortunately were not available for most immigrants.
The waves of immigrant migration to the North America are highlighted
in phases. With phase one came English colonists from the 1600?s to the
1800?s. The English created colonies and forced land from the native
people. The English also established a form of capitalism. During this
same time Africans were seized from their native lands and were shipped
to America involuntarily in the form of property, to be used as slave
labor. Also, phase one brought an era in which Irish Catholics
immigrated to America, driven from their native land from the 1830?s to
the 1860?s, due to famine, oppression, and poor living conditions. These
Irish immigrants were able to obtain low wage jobs. Phase two began with
the immigration of Chinese people from the 1850?s to the 1870?s; these
people came due to recruitment efforts by the United States and in hope
of obtaining better living conditions. The Chinese became employed
mostly in construction, and menial service jobs. The Italians arrived
between the 1880?s and the 1910?s. The Italian people were recruited for
construction and other related low wage labor jobs. The Japanese
immigrants came to live in Western America after migrating from their
land to Hawaii from the 1880?s to the 1900?s. The Japanese people had
also been recruited as laborers.
The third phase of immigration to the United States began with the
Mexican people from the 1910?s to the 1990?s, due to labor shortages
from Europe and Asia. The Puerto Rican people started arriving in the
1940?s and continue to arrive into the 1990?s. These people accessed
labor jobs in farms and jobs in blue-collar occupations. Recent Asian
and Caribbean groups started arriving in the 1960?s to the 1990?s,
mostly as political refuges, and also for political reasons.
Commercial capitalism and the slave society were the effect of the East
Coast colonial expansion of English land. The early economy was derived
of a combination of enterprises under English rule and independent
entrepreneurs. Included in this system was Slave plantations. The goal
of English colonial settlement was to secure raw goods and markets for
English products. In England merchants invested in the colonial
industries. Other people from Europe began to immigrate into the
colonies with the hope of becoming small farmers. In the colonies there
were two types of major production, small farms, and plantations and
From the 1600?s to the mid 1800?s African people were used for slave
labor in colonial plantations. Around the time of 1860 there were as
many as 3.9 million slaves in the united States due to a strong demand
for their labor.
The Southerners in the United States had held nearly all political and
economic power in the government until the end of the civil war, which
granted the Northern Industrialists the majority of governmental power
in the United States.
In the Northern Industrial society and in small farms immigrants from
Ireland, Germany and Scandinavia were among those in the labor force.
These Europeans had been recruited from their countries, and they had
also left for other reasons such as famine, political and economic
problems and the hope of a better life. The immigration of Europeans
laid the foundation of patterns of racial conflict.
The African people that were now free from slavery began working as low
wage laborers for entrepreneurs. In some cases African Americans were
used as strikebreakers, which raised racial pressure even more.
Eventually African workers
Topics Related to Jed Smart
Demographics of the United States, Native American history, American culture, Immigration to the United States, Immigration, Slavery in the United States, Asian immigration to the United States, League of United Latin American Citizens, multinational capitalism, small business opportunities, english colonists, slave economy, journey to america, industrial economy, economic institution, governmental actions, immigrant groups, freewill, ethnic relations, economic resources, 1600s, third stage, slave labor, phase one, stage of development, stages of development, invasions, second stage
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