This essay Josy Chapman has a total of 6342 words and 38 pages.
Periods/ Eras of Modern Times
Ars Nova Era Circa 1200- Circa 1450 -http://www.britannica.com/art/Ars-Nova-music
("New Art"), in music history, period of the tremendous flowering of music in the 14th century, particularly in HYPERLINK "http://www.britannica.com/place/France" France. The designation Ars Nova opposed to the Ars Antiqua of 13th-century France. It was title of a treatise written about 1320 by the composer HYPERLINK "http://www.britannica.com/biography/Philippe-de-Vitry" Philippe de Vitry. He was the most enthusiastic proponent of the "New Art". He demonstrates in his treatise the innovations in rhythmic notation characteristic of the new music. Philippe de Vitry was a 14th century French composer, poet, administrator, and later a bishop. He is also believed to be the creator of the Ars Nova movement in France towards the end of the middle ages. Guillaume de Machaut, (born c. 1300, Machault, Fr.—died 1377, Reims) Machaut was a French poet and musician, greatly admired by contemporaries as a master of French versification and regarded as one of the leading French composers of the HYPERLINK "http://www.britannica.com/art/Ars-Nova-music" Ars Nova musical style of the 14th century. It is on his shorter poems and his musical compositions that his reputation rests. Francesco Landini (born c. 1335, Fiesole, near Florence—died Sept. 2, 1397, Florence) Francesco was the leading composer of 14th-century Italy, famed during his lifetime for his musical memory, his skill in improvisation, and his virtuosity on the organetto, or portative organ, as well as for his compositions. He also played the flute and the rebec.
Renaissance Era Circa 1450- Circa 1600 http://www.britannica.com/event/Renaissance
The word Renaissance is a French word meaning new birth, a name given to the movement in Europe that inspired men to abandon the restraints of the Middle Ages and to develop modern interests, enthusiasm and ideals. Its most noted feature was the Revival of Learning, an awakening of mind and a thirst after the new knowledge. This resulted in numerous investigations of natural events, in a widespread study of art and literature and in a broadening of outlook to a degree never before known. Before the fifteenth century clergymen were the only educated class. They were accepted as authority on all subjects. But in the Renaissance men all over Europe began to think for themselves. Many learned men came from the East into Western Europe, bringing literature, arts, and other treasures, after the fall of Constantinople 1453}. They helped very greatly in developing the new thirst for knowledge and the appreciation of human interests, although these men were not the direct cause of the Renaissance as some writers suppose. The birth of new ideas and eagerness in using them grew out of many preceding conditions that slowly developed through the centuries, particularly in the fourteenth century. Indeed the Middle Ages had a civilization and culture of their own. Ancient customs and numerous wrong notions imprisoned this culture. The Renaissance upset these traditions at many points, and by using certain old ideas built up a new civilization. The Renaissance did not consist so much in a change of subjects of study as it did in setting up a new viewpoint from which well-known facts may be considered. Languages, philosophy, art, government, and religion were studies as fields in which to make discoveries and critical comparisons. Although theoretical purposes as first ruled the movement, men came to see its value in promoting progress and so later made a multitude of practical applications of the new learning. The new curiosity brought out new facts and so led to a rejection of many errors about the natural world; students gave scant attention to mere opinions and learned to make direct observations. Then the foundations of modern science were laid. Humanism also arose. This means a very high regard for the facts pertaining to the human race. Shallow ideas about human nature and man's place in society melted away and man was then viewed as a living, inspiring subject for direct observation and study. A self-sacrificing devotion to Greek and Latin studies brought later great enlargement to all modern languages and literatures. Raphael, Da Vinci, Titian, Corregio and others produced words of art that have never been surpassed. The Renaissance helped in the philosophy, Bruno and other thinkers threw off the chains of cramped intellectual masters for the sake