Notes on the lithosphere- (rock sphere) Upper most part is crust of earth. Compiled of rocks of outer crust. Outermost shell. Upper part- rocks we see at and near the earths surface. Crust is 5 to 10 km thick under most oceans and 24 to 60 km thick under the continents. The lithosphere under the crust is solid, dense material. (more dense than surface materials). Lithosphere 100-200 km. Notes on the aesthenosphere- zone beneath the lithosphere. Thick like tar. Weak because of high teperatures at that depth. Density- 2.7-3.4 to about 12. Notes on the hydrosphere- (Water-bearing) Too small due to the irregularity of upward projection. Density-1.1 Notes on the Atmosphere- only 10 km thick layer of gas which is the basis of human life. Dens. 0.0.

Reactions within- litho to hydro, none besides movement of sand and other free floating particles, absorbtion. Hydro to atmo, evaporation, precipitation, mater, energy, gases, salt, oxygen, carbon dioxide. Litho to atmo, none besides precipitation. Silicon tetrahedron- tetrahedron, a shape of a crystal. If a quartz crystal, (SiO) is broken, then it would shatter. A feldspar (Al,Si,O,Ca,Na) is split, it would evenly cleave. Of all rocks- O=46% Si=28%. Basic structure- 4 oxygen, one Si, i n the shape of a pyramid. Such a foundation is a Si tetrahedron. Silicates are the most common family of minerals. Tetrahedrons- Si + O2= 75% of all. Rocks are classified- by how they are formed. Igneous rocks- are usually not porous. They solidify from a molten state. Are further classified as plutonic (intrusive) and volcanic (extrusive). Volcanic solidify on the earth?s surface. Plutonic solidify below the earth?s surface. Metamorphic rocks solidify (changed form) are se!

dimentary or igneous rocks in which the minerals or texture or both have been changed by high pressures and temperatures without melting. Sedimentary Rocks- are made up of sediment (rock and mineral fragments) carried over the earth?s surfarce mostly by streams and deposited in layers on the ocean floor. Examples include, granite, sandstone. Air masses- Cold Fronts- The Interface at which cold air replaces warm air. Cold Fronts usually come after the warm fronts in such a system. In fact, it is usually followed by rain. Formed by air flowing over the land and ocean that situates in the tropics, continents, oceans. CT, CP, MT, MP Warm fronts- the interface where warm air replaces cold air. Signified by semicircles. salinity- The number of grams of dissolved material in 1000 grams of seawater. Salinity is usually relative to salt. In the ocean, there is approx. 35 grams of salt per thousand. It is developed by the movement of dissolved particles towards a basin of!

water. Sodium and chlorine atoms make up about 85% of all. Ions of just 6 elements make up more than 99% of the ions. Relative amounts: Chlor 55.2%; Sod 30.5; Sulfate 7.7; Magnes 3.7; Calc 1.2; Pot 1.1; All others .7 percent of all ions. Exe. 100 grams seawater, 965 grams water, 35 grams salts. Na + Cl -. Trace elements are extremely small in the development of water. They make up the other one percent of the ions in seawater. Winds are the cheif cause of waves and ocean movements of that type. Each wave has a top, or crest. Each has a bnottom, or trough. Height equals crest minus trough. Crest to crest legnth is wavelegnth. Time between crests is called the period. Period equals wavelegnth divided by period. Over deep water, waves with long wavelegnths travel faster than those with short wavelegnths. Long waves crashing on a beach are usually a sign of an upcoming storm. When the water is deeper than one-half the wave legnth, the water particles move around!

in circles. The diameter equals the wave height. Deeper and deeper, diameters decrease. One half legnth of wave, no detectable motion. Waves break because bottom particles are dragged on floor as upper particles race ahead. The result is a breaking wave. Waves bend at beaches to become parallel because when water is shallower, the waves slow down, thus giving the oblique angled waves a chance to catch up. Currents are caused by winds at the ocean?s surface. The sun is the basic source of energy for ocean currents. It is the wind that turns the sun?s radiant energy into the kinetic energy of the currents. The water is pushed ahead of the wind that blows it. Density currents- or ?deep