Mineral and Water Function

Tiffany Sabala

SCI/220
May 22, 2017
Erik Kirk








Mineral and Water Function


Mention two major and two minor minerals. State their functions,
sources and deficiency


conditions.

Major Minerals
|Major Minerals |These naturally occurring elements remain in |
| |the body over time. A 150-pound adult, |
| |for example, has more than two pounds of |
| |calcium, found mostly in bone and teeth. |
|Mineral |Action |Food Sources |Supplement |Notes |
| | | |Dosage | |
|Calcium |Essential for |Dairy foods, |1,000-1,200 mg|Avoid daily |
|(ascorbate, |strong bones |sardines, |(up to 1,500 |doses more |
|citrate) |and teeth, |leafy green |mg for older |than 2,500 mg.|
| |healthy gums. |vegetables. |women not | Take with |
| | | |taking HRT); |magnesium. |
| | | |500 mg at a | |
| | | |time, | |
| | | |2 or 3 times a| |
| | | |day. | |
|Potassium |Needed for a |Apricots, |3,500-4,5000 |Don't take |
|(chloride, |healthy heart |bananas, brown|mg (higher |supplements on|
|gluconate) |and nervous |rice, garlic, |level needed |an empty |
| |system. |nuts, torula |if stress is a|stomach. May |
| | Protects |yeast, wheat |factor). |be toxic above|
| |against |bran, yams. | Deficiencies |25g. |
| |hypertension. | |can result | |
| | | |from diarrhea,| |
| | | |vomiting, use | |
| | | |of diuretics. | |


Minor Minerals
|Minor Minerals | Even in miniscule amounts, trace minerals |
| |are critical |
| |to health |
|Mineral |Action |Food Sources |Supplement Dosage|Notes |
|iron |Component of |Eggs, fish, |10 mg (men); 18 |High levels |
|(ferrous |hemoglobin and |leafy greens,|mg (women of |are linked to |
|sulfate, |myoglobin, |liver, meat, |childbearing |cancer and |
|gluconate, |which transport|nuts, |age); C increases|heart disease.|
|fumarate) |and store |poultry, |absorption. | |
| |oxygen. |raisins, | | |
| | Fights |whole grains.| | |
| |infection. | | | |
|Zinc |Necessary for |Brewer's |15-50 mg (higher |Do not take at|
|(citrate, |growth. |yeast, fish, |dosage used to |the same time |
|gluconate) | Important in |lamb, |treat prostate |as iron |
| |immune and |legumes, |enlargement). |supplements. |
| |reproductive |liver, | | Doses above |
| |health. |oysters, sea | |100 mg/day |
| | |vegetables, | |suppress |
| | |whole grains.| |immunity. |



2) Research information about one of the following: osteoporosis,
anemia or iodine deficiency disorders. For your selection, indicate
symptoms, required minerals and food sources, people or areas affected, and
how the disease is managed or treated.
Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is a disease marked by reduced bone strength
leading to an increased risk of fractures, or broken bones. Bone
strength has two main features: bone mass (amount of bone) and bone
quality. Osteoporosis is the major cause of fractures in
postmenopausal women and the elderly. Fractures happen most often in
bones of the hip, spine, and wrist, but any bone can be affected. Some
fractures can be permanently disabling, especially when they happen in
the hip.
Osteoporosis causes no specific pain or symptoms. However, it
does increase the risk of serious or devastating fractures. Two of the
most important nutrients are calcium and vitamin D. Calcium is a major
building-block of bone tissue (the skeleton houses 99% of the body's
calcium stores). Vitamin D is key at it assists your body to absorb
calcium - the two go hand in hand. There are several foods, nutrients
and vitamins, besides calcium and vitamin D, that help to prevent
osteoporosis and contribute to bone, muscle and joint health,
including protein, fruits and vegetables, and other vitamins and
minerals.
It may not be fair, but it's true: If you're a woman, you're
automatically at greater risk for osteoporosis than men. The
International Osteoporosis Foundation estimates that osteoporosis
affects about 200 million women worldwide. Why the gender gap? Women
start with lower bone density than their male peers and they lose bone
mass more quickly as they age, which leads to osteoporosis in some
women. Between the ages of 20 and 80, the average white woman loses
one-third of her hip bone density, compared to a bone density loss of
only one-fourth in men.


The primary goal in treating people with osteoporosis is preventing
fractures. A complete treatment program includes a focus on proper
nutrition, exercise, and prevention of falls that may result in fractures.
For people with osteoporosis resulting from another condition, the best
approach is to identify and treat the underlying cause.