This essay Ozone Depletion has a total of 744 words and 4 pages.
In this world of rapid change, it's extremely difficult for a company to
stay ahead of the game even using all the resources available to them. So, it's
difficult to imagine the problems they would run into when a group of
environmentalists decide to boycott a substance which is the foundation of their
company. These chemicals, although very useful, cause consequences that need to
be dealt with now in order to prevent further damage.
The chemicals in question are numerous, but the two gaining the most
attention are chloroflurocarbons (CFC's) and carbon tetrachloride. CFC's have a
wide range of uses, but are popularly used in aerosol propellants and air
conditioning for homes and cars (Singer and Crandall npg). Carbon tetrachloride
is one of the major components in making CFC so their damage is similar. When
they inter the outer atmosphere, They react with ozone chemicals to release
chlorine and bromine that in turn deteriorate the ozone and form "thinning" or
"holes." This is catastrophic because they are bonded very strongly together
and cannot be broken down by water. This means they travel into the atmosphere
virtually unharmed by rain or decomposition (Goldfarb 282).
The reason these are causing such a commotion is the damage they cause
to living things on Earth. When the ozone depletes, it causes more ultraviolet
(UV) rays to hit the Earth's surface than are healthy (Singer and Crandall npg).
UV rays affect the DNA of every living cell, altering the protein make-up of
that cell (Goldfarb 288). Most importantly it affects "microscopic
photoplankton" which rest at the bottom of the food chain, placing us in extreme
danger (Goldfarb 288). Henry Lee, leading researcher on ozone depletion for the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), says that UV rays will only have a slight
effect on oceans, though. He says the problem lies on the fact that 70 percent
of the Earth's surface is covered with water, making it a widespread problem.
In addition to that, humans exposed to excess UV rays over a period of time are
likely to develop some form of cancer (Singer and Crandall npg). The EPA
released a report that stated if CFC's weren't controlled, in the future there
will be approximately "40 million additional cases of non-melanoma skin cancer
found and 800,000 additional skin cancer deaths" (Singer and Crandall npg).
Now that scientists know what these and other "culprits" do, they're
trying to find solutions to this world-wide problem. When they found these
chemicals to be harmful, environmentalists didn't hesitate in taking action.
They placed a boycott on the use of aerosol spray cans. The U.S. and Canada
responded by banning "CFC powered spray cans," and that, along with Europe
agreeing to cut back by 35 percent, caused the rate of damage to fall
drastically (Singer and Crandall npg). Therefore, manufacturers have to stop
using these. The only other alternative is to find replacements for these
deadly compounds. This is easier and more practical than stopping production
altogether. It costs millions of dollars to re-tool manufacturers' machines,
while losing money in the process. DuPont is the largest producer of CFC's and
stands to lose the most if and when a ban is placed on CFC's. Because of this
position, they're stepping up research on chemicals that get the job done, but
cause less damage (Singer and Crandall npg). Hydroflurocarbons (HFC's) are
"made with hydrogen instead of chlorine," which doesn't contribute to the ozone
problem, but is a factor to the greenhouse effect (Goldfarb 290).
Hydrochloroflurocarbons (HCFC's), like HFC's, have hydrogen in place of the
deadly chlorine, but still contribute to ozone depletion. The only difference
being HCFC's deplete at a much slower rate (Goldfarb 290). The major
breakthrough is the discovery of CFC-134a, It's also chlorine-free but
deteriorates before it reaches the outer atmosphere, so no damage is done. It
will take the place of CFC-11 and CFC-12 in some refrigeration and coolant
products (Singer and Crandall npg).
Many people are surprised to see the government moving so quickly in
regards to this major problem. One writer said it was hard enough to get
lawmakers to agree on anything, but in this situation, they're "moving with
unusual speed and resolve" ("Ozone Defense" 63). Which doesn't excuse the fact
that when they knew CFC's and tetrachloride were harmful they should have put an
immediate freeze on production of them. One scientist commented by saying,
"...absolute proof is not needed when we are conducting an experiment on our own
planet" (Goldfarb 291). Regardless of what happened in the past, we should be
thankful they moved as quickly as they did. In doing so, They bought
Lithosphere Lithosphere Notes on the lithosphere- (rock sphere) Upper most part is crust of earth. Compiled of rocks of outer crust. Outermost shell. Upper part- rocks we see at and near the earths surface. Crust is 5 to 10 km thick under most oceans and 24 to 60 km thick under the continents. The lithosphere under the crust is solid, dense material. (more dense than surface materials). Lithosphere 100-200 km. Notes on the aesthenosphere- zone beneath the lithosphere. Thick like tar. Weak because of high t
The Greenhouse Effect The Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect is an increase in the atmospheric temperature caused by increasing amounts of greenhousegases. These gases act as a heat blanket insulating the Earth's surface absorbing and trapping heat radiation which normally escapes from the earth. They include carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, nitrous oxide, CFC's, and other halocarbons. The earth's atmosphere goes through two processes constantly. Global cooling is the first process. This process uses the
Steps Towards An Ecosociety: Dealing With Air PollutionSteps Towards an Ecosociety: Dealing with Air Pollution By: Jonathan Roitman For: Dr. Rao Course: Poli 385/2 This essay identifies and explains the problem of pollution facing humanity today. It will also propose one of the first ideas which could more effectively limit air pollution, Emission Credit Trading. This can be seen as one of the first steps in the development of an ecosociety. The notion of a viable ecosociety has created considerable problems in terms of deciding the most effective a
The Greenhouse EffectThe Greenhouse Effect Our world is suffering, and it is suffering from something people call the Greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is caused by humans over pollution of the earth. If we do not stop this soon the earth will die. We have caused this over many years of over industrialization in this growing world. We think that bigger is better, so we make vehicles bigger and better, and we make pretty much everything else bigger as well. So we make larger factories to build these larger
The Environmental Impact Of Eating Beef And Dairy ProductsThe Environmental Impact of Eating Beef and Dairy Products There are currently 1.28 billion cattle populating the earth. They occupy nearly 24 percent of the landmass of the planet. Their combined weight exceeds that of the earth's entire human population. Raising cows for beef has been linked to several environmental problems, and eating beef can worsen your health. The Dairy Industry puts not only your health in danger from consuming their products, but the lives of the cows that produce them.
Study Of Environmental Issues Associated With IndustrializationStudy of Environmental Issues Associated with Industrialization Although our industrial ways seem to be a very progressive step into the future, there are many flaws to the way many things are today. Things have definitely changed over the past century, as we can currently do things much more efficiently then before. The cost of this efficiency may seem inexpensive in many ways, however we do not realize that the cost of these new technologies do not just include money, time and labour, but it a
Humans Soon To Be Extinct... Say It Aint So!!Humans Soon to be Extinct... Say it ain't so!! by Ryan Shoquist English 121 Dr. Gilliard November 23, 1996 Table of Contents Abstract.....................................page Body.........................................pages Bibliography.................................page Appendix.....................................pages Structured List.........................page Figures.................................page Figures.................................page Figures...............................
Global WarmingGlobal Warming The greenhouse effect, in environmental science, is a popular term for the effect that certain variable constituents of the Earth's lower atmosphere have on surface temperatures. It has been known since 1896 that Earth has been warmed by a blanket of gasses (This is called the ?greenhouse effect.?). The gases--water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4)--keep ground temperatures at a global average of about 15 degrees C (60 degrees F). Without them the average would
Global WarmingGlobal Warming The relationship between humans and the state of the ecosystem is not only dependent upon how many people there are, but also upon what they do. When there were few people, the dominant factors controlling ecosystem state were the natural ones that have operated for millions of years. The human population has now grown so large that there are concerns that they have become a significant element in ecosystem dynamics. One of these concerns is the relationship between human activiti
Global WarmingGlobal Warming Mission Plan a. Analysis of the Problem 1. History of the Problem Some scientist's have been concerned since 1896 about what might happen if there were 5.5 billion tons carbon dioxide in our atmosphere. In 1961 a British scientist did an experiment showing that the carbon in the air was absorbing some of the sun's radiation. Afterward a Swedish scientist, Suante Arrhenius, found out if the radiation of the sun was trapped in the carbon dioxide the temperature of the earth would in
Death Of A PlanetDeath of a Planet Air pollution is a very big problem in the United States. A large part of air pollution comes from cars. The Environmental Protection Agency says, The most polluting activity an average person does everyday is drive their car(1 factsheet OMS-5). Most people probably aren't aware that they are polluting the environment. Maybe if everyone knew how serious this pollution problem is, they would find ways to reduce the pollution. Most pollution that is released by cars comes from
The Enviromnetal Degradation As A Result Of OverpopulationThe Enviromnetal Degradation as a Result of Overpopulation 1 Introduction There are simply too many people on our planet, and the population is not showing any signs of slowing down(see Figure 1). It is having disastrous effects on our environment. There are too many implications and interrelationships to discuss in this paper, but the three substances that our earth consists of: land, water and air, are being destroyed. Our forests are being cut down at an alarming rate, bearing enormous impact
THE DESTRUCTION OF MAN KIND THE DESTRUCTION OF MAN KIND We know there will be problems in environmental terms, manyserious problems, but it is a matter of economics. There won't be anycomplete disaster, and what we cannot solve, well, that's the price we haveto pay. - Eduardo Albuquerque Barbosa There is a constant war that is being fought in the rainforests ofSouth America. The death toll is one that far surpasses any other war inhistory. Vietnam and World War II had minimal loss of life compared to thisnever ending ba
What are the pros and cons of the Kyoto Protocol?What are the pros and cons of the Kyoto Protocol? Do you think it should be followed? Why, or why not? Kyoto Protocol was signed in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, with the aim to reduce greenhousegases emission and thus to conquer global warming. It came into force eventually on February 16, 2005 with 55 countries ratifying it. Apparently the effect of such agreement is distinctive in different states depending on the level of the emissions they have. Numerous supporters of the Protocol?s promotion pres
Global WarmingGlobal Warming The issue of global warming or climate change remains a polarizing subject and a continuing source of heated political, social, and economic debate. This article on Yale Global focuses on the effects of global warming and the potential impact of global warming. Global warming is an emerging, dynamic area with enormous implications to the insurance industry. One of the reasons that drawing conclusions on temperature trends is tricky is that the historical temperature series is high
Tremeka Claxton Tremeka Claxton Physical Science Dr.Yeh 8 April 2015 NASA NASA stands for National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA was started in 1958 as a part of the United States government. NASA is in charge of U.S. science and technology that has to do with airplanes or space. NASA does a lot of different things. NASA makes satellites. The satellites help scientists learn more about Earth. President Dwight D. Eisenhower established the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1
Environmental essay Environmental essay Abstract There exists an underrated conscious awareness in sustainable development, and sustainable transportation. While what is sustainable continues to be defined and characterized in various ways, this research paper will clarify the connotation of sustainability, an evaluation as well as overall execution of sustainable transportation. A sustainable literacy survey was designed by Global Environmental Challenges class at the University of Ottawa. The intention of the re
Water Pollution: Is It As Big Of A Problem As We Think?Water Pollution: Is it as big of a problem as we think? The following essay will be looking at the factors that cause pollution, and the effect that pollution has on our world today. It will also investigate what it has in store for the future if things do not improve. It will also explore some of the methods used to treat and clean-up wastewater, and oil spills. Today, the industrialization of Canada is severely affecting this nations lakes, streams, and rivers. If something is not done to impr