POLITICAL

. Leaders/groups
. Forms of government
. Empires
. State building/expansion
. Political structures
. Courts/laws
. Nationalism/nations
. Revolts/revolutions
|Effective central government due to evidence of organized
communities and supervision on daily tasks of large number of
laborers
. Strong ruling class - evidence from the well fortified citadels
. Powerful priestly class which ruled from the citadels
. High degree of uniformity suggests a centralized and structured state



| |
|ECONOMIC |Extensive trade with cities being major trade centers |
| |Grain storage for regulation of grain production and |
|Agricultural, pastoral |sales |
|Economic systems |Cultivation of wheat, rye, peas, and possibly rice, and |
|Labor systems/ |cotton |
|organizations |Used a standardized system of weights and measure and |
|Industrialization |seals to stamp commodities to facilitate trade |
|Technology/industry | |
|Capital/money | |
|Business organizations | |
| | |
|RELIGIOUS |Polytheistic |
| |Mother goddesses appear to have been objects of worship|
|Belief systems/ teachings|for |
| |common people (fertility = agriculture) |
|Philosophy | |
|Holy books | |
|Conversion | |
|Key figures | |
|Deities | |
|SOCIAL |Priesthood, upper class |
| |Elites less boastful about their position (no elaborate |
|Family/ kinship |tombs and palaces) |
|Gender roles/relations |Large, richly built houses of 2-3 stories, with indoor |
|Social and economic |plumbing, luxurious bathrooms, brick toilets, and access|
|classes |to running water |
|Racial/ ethnic factors | |
|Entertainment | |
|Lifestyles | |
|"Haves" & "have nots" | |
| | |
| | |
|INTERACTIONS |Similarities in religion between Indus and Mesopotamia |
| |due to trading contacts |
|War/conflict |Also traded with China and Burma |
|Diplomacy/treaties |Weak military to defend from invaders |
|Alliances |Invasions from Aryans, an Indo-European group who |
|Exchanges between |combined their religious and political ideas with those |
|individuals, groups, & |of the Indus people |
|empires/nations | |
|Trade/commerce | |
|Globalization | |
| | |
|ARTS |Well-planned citadels - fortress protecting the city |
| |Public bathing |
|Art |Sewer system |
|Music |Streets, organized and laid out on a grid system |
|Writing/literature |Complex writing system, which has not been deciphered |
|Philosophy | |
|Math | |
|Science | |
|Education | |
|Architecture | |
|Technology | |
|Innovations | |
|Transportation | |
|ENVIRONMENTAL |Located in modern-day Pakistan and parts of India |
| |Emerged along the Indus River by 2500 B.C.E. |
|Location |Irrigation systems to catch and control waters from the |
|Physical |monsoons and rivers |
|Human/environment |Earthquakes, desertification, monsoons [seasonal winds] |
|Migration/movement |may have contributed to downfall |
|Region |Harappa - Major urban complex of the Harappan |
|Demography |civilization; laid out on planned grid pattern |
|Neighborhood |Mohenjo Daro - Major urban complex of the Harappan |
|Urbanization |Civilization; laid out on planned grid pattern |
|Settlement patterns | |
|Disease | |
|Cities (2 major ones) | |