POLITICAL

. Leaders/groups
. Forms of government
. Empires
. State building/expansion
. Political structures
. Courts/laws
. Nationalism/nations
. Revolts/revolutions
|Sumerians organized city-states - a form of political organization
typical of Mesopotamia civilizations; consisted of agricultural
hinterlands ruled by an urban-based king
. King claimed divine authority and the government regulated religion
. Provided a court system in the interests of justice
. Kings served as military leaders during times of war
. Hammurabi's Code - Babylonian king that introduced the code of laws
which helped unify the empire. Established rules of procedure for
courts of law and regulated property rights and the duties of family
members, setting harsh punishment for crimes.
. Sargon of Akkad - unified city-states south of modern-day Baghdad
into the first empire | |
|ECONOMIC |Pottery industry |
| |Silver - means of exchange for buying and selling goods |
|Agricultural, pastoral |(early form of money) |
|Economic systems |Learned about fertilizers |
|Labor systems/ | |
|organizations | |
|Industrialization | |
|Technology/industry | |
|Capital/money | |
|Business organizations | |
|RELIGIOUS |Priests conducted complex rituals within ziggurats |
| |Ziggurats - Massive towers or pyramids usually associated |
|Belief systems/ teachings|with temple complexes; first monumental architecture of the |
| |civilization |
|Philosophy |Polytheistic; saw gods in many aspects of nature |
|Holy books |Ideas about gods' creation of the earth and punishment of |
|Conversion |humans |
|Key figures |influenced writers of the Old Testament |
|Deities |Belief in a gloomy afterlife of punishment (their version of |
| |hell) |
|SOCIAL |King, noble class, priesthood all controlled land |
| |Independent business class for trade |
|Family/ kinship |Slaves worked the land, could eventually earn money to buy |
|Gender roles/relations |their freedom |
|Social and economic | |
|classes | |
|Racial/ ethnic factors | |
|Entertainment | |
|Lifestyles | |
|"Haves" & "have nots" | |
|INTERACTIONS |One of the few cases of a civilization developing from |
| |scratch (with no example to copy from) |
|War/conflict |Farming, because of irrigations, required considerable |
|Diplomacy/treaties |coordination |
|Alliances |among communities |
|Exchanges between |Trained army; warfare vital to ensure supplies of slaves |
|individuals, groups, & |taken as prisoners |
|empires/nations |Region hard to defend - Sumerians fell to the Akkadians, who |
|Trade/commerce |later fell to the Babylonians (who extended the empire). |
|Globalization |Invasions of Semitic people from the south introduced |
| |language and |
| |began to dominate the region, they adopted the culture so key|
| |features of civilization persisted, but large political units|
| |declined in favor of small |
| |city-states or regional kingdoms. |
| |Eventually invasions by Assyrians and Persians created large |
| |empires. |
|ARTS |Invented wheel for transportation |
| |Cuneiform - writing developed by the Sumerians using |
|Art |wedge-shaped |
|Music |stylus (like a ballpoint pen) and clay tablets. |
|Writing/literature |Statues and painted frescoes decorated temples of the gods |
|Philosophy |Astronomy - helped with development of the calendar |
|Math |Mathematics - system on numbers based on units of 10, 60, |
|Science |360 that we still use to calculate circles and hours |
|Education | |
|Architecture | |
|Technology | |
|Innovations | |
|Transportation | |
|ENVIRONMENTAL |Founded in the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers |
| |called |
|Location |Mesopotamia (the land between the rivers); irregular flooding|
|Physical | |
|Human/environment |Sumerians - people who migrated into Mesopotamia about 4000 |
|Migration/movement |B.C.E.; |
|Region |created first civilization within region; organized area into|
|Demography |city-states |
|Neighborhood |More vulnerable to invasions due to a lack of natural |
|Urbanization |barriers |
|Settlement patterns |Located in modern-day Iraq |
|Disease |Territory found in the fertile crescent, an area between the |
|Cities (2 major ones) |Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea in southwest Asia |
| |Sumer, Babylon |