Public Health Exam Review

Environmental Health
Protection against environmental factors that may adversely impact human health

OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration)
To protect workers against work hazards

Inspectors/ Assessors
Professionals who measure and evaluate health hazards

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
Created to protect human health and the environment by enforcing regulations based on laws passed by congress.

Head of EPA
Gina McCarthy

EPA Superfund Programs
Responsible for cleaning up some of the nations most contaminated land and responding to environmental emergencies (oil spills, and natural disasters)

NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act)
Enforces the environmental impact statement for actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment
Ex. Before building, offshore drilling, manufacturing plants

Air Pollution
Fine Particulate Matter
Small airborne particles, small enough to be inhaled, which can eventually lead to diseases: Respiratory Infection, Circulatory Diseases

Ozone
Produced by chemical reactions involving nitrous oxides.
Peaks in the afternoon
Highest in summer
Reacts with organic matter (plant foliage) affects human airways causes inflammation of lungs lead to coughing wheezing asthma

Climate Change
A long-term change in the Earths climate or of a region on Earth

Global Warming
Increasing in Earths average surface temperature due to the rising levels of green house gases. Human activity is to blame because of CO2 and other green house gases
Fossil Fuels - Deforestation
Industry - Agricultural practices
Green house gases trap energy in the atmosphere like a blanket causing it to warm, which is natural & necessary



Fracking (Hydraulic Fracturing)
Drilling down into the Earth before a high-pressure water mixture is directed at the rocks to release the gas inside

Macronutrients
Nutrients that is required in large amounts - proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. They are need for energy production and growth and maintenance.

Micronutrients
Nutrients that is required in small amounts - vitamins, minerals, and essential fatty acids. They are needed for numerous functions.

Malnutrition
Iron, calcium, vitamins D, folate, vitamin B12 and protein energy

Over nutrition
Energy - Obesity, sodium salt, saturated fats, sugars, vitamin A

Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy
Weight Loss Surgery

Food Insecurity
Lack of access to enough food or an active healthy life for all house hold members.

Food Deserts
Urban neighborhoods and rural towns without ready access to fresh, healthy, and affordable food
Fast Food places, Bodegas, Usually in low income areas all of theses things can lead to height obesity rates

How are they identified?
Through the Census Data

SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program)
Food Stamps

WIC (Women, Infants and Children)
Nutrition Assessment and Education
Breastfeeding Counseling and Support Services
Monthly check for nutritious foods

Organic Foods
Organic refers to the way farmers grow and process agricultural product

GMO (Genetically Modified Organisms)
Organisms in which the genetic material has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination

Farm Bill
Sets national agriculture, nutrition, conservation, and forestry policy

Farm Subsidies
A governmental subsidy paid to farmers and agribusiness to supplement their income, manage the supply of agricultural commodities, and influence the cost and supply of such commodities
Community
A geographic area with specific boundaries like a neighborhood, city, or state
A group of people who have common characteristics; communities can be defined by location, race, ethnicity, age, occupation or common bonds.
Membership
Shared Values and norms
Mutual influence
Shared needs
Shared emotional connection

Community Medicine
Providing medical services in the community
Understanding community resources
Health promotion and disease prevention
Occupational health
Knowledge of communities
Care of populations
Community participation in health care activities

Community Health
The health status of a group of individuals and the actions and conditions that are taken in order to preserve their health

Personal
Eating right
Wearing your seatbelt
Visiting physician

Community
Protecting food/water supply
Maintain accurate records
Fund drives

Factors that Affect Community Health (Physical)
Geography: Altitude, climate
Environment: Natural resources and population growth
Community Size: Large vs. Small
Industrial Development: Added resources or environmental pollution

Factors (Social)
Beliefs, traditions, prejudices - food violence
Economy - National and local $
Politics - Power, influence
Religion - limitation or restrictions
Social norms - cigarettes, alcohol

4 Dimensions of Community Medicine
Paying attention to sociocultural aspects of patient care
Coordination a community\'s health resources in the care of patients
Identifying and intervening in a community\'s health problem
Assimilating into a community and participating in its