Chapter 4Exam 1February 28th, 2017

Describe the Cell Theory and the experiment that showed where cells originate.

What are the basic functions of a cell?

When would you use an electron, confocal, or light microscope?

What are cells small? Think of volume to surface ratios

Distinguish between the cytosol and the cytoplasm

How are eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells different?

What is the function of bacterial sex pili?

Describe a technique you would use to separate cellular organelle.

What is the function of the cell membrane?

Compare and contrast an animal and plant cell.

What is the function of the nuclear pores?

What is the nuclear localization signal? How would mutations to the signal affect its function?

List the organelles of a plant and an animal cell. State the function of each organelle. Do bacterial cells have organelles?

List the components of the endomembrane system and the function of each.

What is the function of the cytoskeletal system? Describe each type of cytoskeletal protein and their function. What is the function of dyneins and kinesins?

Describe the Endosymbiotic Theory?

Describe plasmodesmata.

Describe the cell adhesion molecules, cell junctions and extra cellular matrix.

1 9 ) When biologists wish to study the internal ultrastructure of cells, they can achieve the finest resolution by using
A) a phase-contrast light microscope. B) a scanning electron microscope. C) a transmission electronic microscope. D) a confocal fluorescence microscope. E) a super-resolution fluorescence microscope.

20 ) In the fractionation of homogenized cells using centrifugation, the primary factor that determines whether a specific cellular component ends up in the supernatant or the pellet is
A) the relative solubility of the component. B) the size and weight of the component. C) the percentage of carbohydrates in the component. D) the presence or absence of nucleic acids in the component. E) the presence or absence of lipids in the component.

21 ) Which of the following correctly lists the order in which cellular components will be found in the pellet when homogenized cells are treated with increasingly rapid spins in a centrifuge?
A) ribosomes, nucleus, mitochondria B) chloroplasts, ribosomes, vacuoles C) nucleus, ribosomes, chloroplasts D) vacuoles, ribosomes, nucleus E) nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes

22 ) Green fluorescent protein (GFP) can be used to fluorescently label a specific protein in cells by genetically engineering cells to synthesize the target protein fused to GFP. What is the advantage of using GFP fusions to visualize specific proteins, instead of staining cells with fluorescently labeled probes that bind to the target protein?
A) GFP fusions enable one to track changes in the location of the protein in living cells; staining usually requires preserved cells. B) GFP fusions enable higher resolution than staining with fluorescent probes. C) GFP permits the position of the protein in the cell more precisely than fluorescent probes. D) GFP permits visualization of protein-protein interactions; fluorescent probes do not. E) GFP fusions are not subject to artifacts; fluorescent probes may introduce background artifacts.

23 ) All of the following are part of a prokaryotic cell except
A) DNA. B) a cell wall. C) a plasma membrane. D) ribosomes. E) an endoplasmic reticulum.

24 ) Which of the following is a major cause of the size limits for certain types of cells?
A) limitation on the strength and integrity of the plasma membrane as cell size increases
B) the difference in plasma membranes between prokaryotes and eukaryotes C) evolutionary progression in cell size; more primitive cells have smaller sizes D) the need for a surface area of sufficient area to support the cell's metabolic needs E) rigid cell walls that limit cell size expansion

25 ) The evolution of eukaryotic cells most likely involved
A) endosymbiosis of an aerobic bacterium in a larger host cell-the endosymbiont evolved into mitochondria. B) anaerobic archaea taking up residence inside a larger bacterial host cell to escape toxic oxygen-the anaerobic bacterium evolved into chloroplasts. C) an endosymbiotic fungal cell evolved into the nucleus. D) acquisition of an endomembrane system, and subsequent evolution of mitochondria from a portion of the Golgi.

26 ) Prokaryotes are classified as belonging to two different domains. What are the domains?
A) Bacteria and Eukarya B) Bacteria and Archaea C) Archaea and Protista D) Bacteria and Protista E) Bacteria and Fungi

27 ) If radioactive deoxythymidine triphosphate ( dTTP