Review sheet for Lab Exam 1:
Experimental Design (Paramecium) Lab
The scientific method: the experimental approach
Formulating hypotheses
Control treatments versus experimental treatments
Hypotheses versus experimental predictions
The importance of replications
Independent and dependent and standardized variables
The importance of data analysis
Independent samples
Be able to design an experiment given a specific scenario
Case studies
Be able to analyze a case like you did with the Lyme disease case
Data analysis
What the mean and standard deviation tell us
What is the use of frequency distributions
Why we need statistical tests such as the t-test
Be able to calculate means and standard deviations (don't memorize the formulas)
Be able to graph any given set of data
Micropipettors
The proper procedure to use a micropipettor
How to set the volume and how to read the numbers in the volume window
Which micropipettor is appropriate for taking a given volume of liquid
Why disposable tips must be used
The difference between the first and the second stop on a micropipettor
Bean Beetles

The difference between adult males and adult females
Why we care about these insects
Microscopy and the CSI Lab
The difference between compound and dissecting microscopes
Recognize the major parts of the microscopes and their functions
Be able to describe how wet mount slides are prepared
Know how magnification is calculated
The cell
Know the difference between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells, especially under the microscope
Recognize chloroplasts, amyloplasts, the nucleus, plant versus animal cells
Recognize Chlamydomonas versus Gleocapsa versus Paramecium versus Elodea versus cheek cells under the microscope
Know the reason behind using stains such as Lugols (iodine) or methylene blue
The Enzyme Lab
Role of AChE in synaptic signaling
How the insecticide works to kill insects
Why we care about these insecticides
Why should food source matter
Why the interest in esterase enzymes
The basics of how a colorimetric assay works (you do not need to memorize the names of the compounds)
What is the purpose of using blanks in spectrophotometry
Be able to look at data similar to what you generated in lab and graph and interpret the data
Why we divide the enzyme activity by the protein concentration in the extracts
How we use standard curves and the Bradford assay to determine protein concentration
Be able to interpret the standard curve and use the equation of the trendline to figure out protein concentrations for unknowns
How to graph the data from a similar experiment


-628652954655002. Compare and contrast the prokaryotic cell from the eukaryotic cell.
Prokaryotic
Eukaryotic
Diff. The DNA floats in the cytoplasm
True membrane bound nucleus
There are no lysosomes, microtubules
Has lysosomes, microtubules
Has No endoplasmic reticulum
Complex organelles
Multiple proteins act together to fold and condense prokaryotic DNA. Folded DNA is then organized into a variety of conformations that are supercoiled and wound around tetramers of the HU protein.

Wrap their DNA around proteins called histones
1-10um

10-100um
Similarities: Vesicles
Vesicles
Vacuoles
Vacuoles
Cell membrane
Cell membrane

2. Describe the functions of the cell:
http://www.ivyroses.com/Biology/Organelles/Organelle-Functions.php
Amyloplast: Amyloplasts are organelles in plant cells where starch is made from glucose and stored until the plant has need of it; it's their pantry, so to speak. Starch is converted back to glucose when the plant needs the energy, just like you may open a can of soup when you're hungry
Contractile vacuole: In certain organisms, usually single-celled organisms lacking a cell wall, there exists a special kind of vacuole, called a contractile vacuole. A contractile vacuole works just the same as the name suggests, in that it expands and contracts. The point of the contractile vacuole is to pump water out of the cell through a process called osmoregulation, the regulation of osmotic pressure. It occurs in freshwater protists, but mainly in the kingdom Protista as a whole.
Let's take a look at exactly how contractile vacuoles work. There needs to be a set amount of solute vs. solvent in the cell. Basically, the solvent (water) needs to be in balance with the solute (other material). Since the cell works by osmosis, water moving across a semi-permeable membrane, water moves to a lower concentration of water and a higher concentration of solute.
If there is too much water, the contractile vacuole works to pump out the water. This helps to protect the cell: if there is too much water in the cell, it will swell and swell until eventually it ruptures, destroying the cell. Contractile vacuoles keep this in check. They expand when water enters (called the diastole) and contract when filled with water, carrying water along with wastes outside of the cell (called the systole).
Flagellum: A flagellum is a whip-like structure that allows