Review Sheet for Lab Exam 2:
Respiration Lab
Basic processes-Know the basic difference between aerobic respiration and fermentation
Aerobic respiration
fermentation
-Need to use Oxygen
-Produce 38 ATP\'s from one glucose
-Don\'t use Oxygen
-Produce only 2 ATP\'s from one glucose
Which one produces more ATP? 有氧呼吸
What is the relationship to oxygen? 一个需要氧气,一个不需要氧气
-How the respirometers work
What is the significance of the reaction below: CO2+NaOH=NaHCO3
This reaction removes CO 2 gas to form the solid NaHCO 3 . The formation of the solid NaHCO3 lead to a pressure differential between the air inside and outside the pipet.
How is water movement related to respiration rates
The pressure differential in the pipet cause the pipet to suck water in order to balance the pressure. Therefore, the water level of the pipet measures the rate of respiration.
The significance of the respirometer with no plants in it.
It is a negative control.
The experimental organisms
Why use plant seedlings? Why do they have to be dark grown
They can do respiration instead of photosynthesis. They grow in dark, so they will not grow chloroplast and do photosynthesis
What is interesting about adult bean beetles versus darkling beetle larvae? Their energy sources?
The difference of respiration rate in animal. Adult bean beetles do not eat and drink and it moves around very fast and frequently. Darkling beetle larvae do eat, but move very slow. We wanted to find out whether movement effect the rate of respiration or not.
Data analysis
Why subtract the rate measured in the blank respirometers from the experimental ones
Blank respirometer is the negative control, in case there\'s reaction that accidently occur.
Why divide the rates by weight of the organisms to get the specific rate?
It gives us mm water / g hr.
How would the data be analyzed best


Be able to do the data analysis given sample data
Fermentation Lab
The basic process
o Why do the yeast in your tubes resort to fermentation instead of aerobic respiration
Because fermentation provides sufficient energy for yeast to survive.
o Why is alcohol fermentation needed in yeast to carry out glycolysis
In the absence of oxygen, yeast can continue to perform fermentation by converting the pyruvate produced by glycolysis to ethanol and carbon dioxide.
o How efficient is fermentation
Fermentation can only produce 2 ATP, less efficient than aerobic respiration.
o What amylase does to starch
Amylase broke down starch into individual glucose units.
o What gas is produced
Carbon Dioxide
The experiment
o How do we take advantage of the gas produced to measure fermentation rates
We measure the volume of the gas that is released in a closed system.
o What effect is temperature expected to have on this system
Under the temperature of 37C, yeast work the fastest. The temperature accelerates the efficiency of yeast.
o What is the point of performing treatment 2 (starch) versus treatment 3 (starch + amylase
To find out whether amylase affect the reaction rate or not.
o What are the hypotheses for the 3 treatments and why?
Treatment 3 will have the highest amount of CO2. Because amylase help to accelerate the reaction.
o Given the data, be able to graph the data and discuss whether the data match the experimental predictions (without doing statistical analysis)
Starch prints
The logic behind the process

How a negative image is turned into a positive image inside the leaf tissue?
The negative image that pose without light, will produced less starch. When we dye the leaf, the negative image will turn into a positive image, because less starch is produced, so the light will go through more on the place that have less starch.
Relationship between light levels and rate of photosynthesis / starch production
Directly related. The more the light, the more starch is produce.
What the experiment tells us about transport of starch
Satellite DNA
What is satellite DNA
Highly repetitive DNA. It includes the DNA sequences that occur in 100,000-10,000,000 copies per haploid genome and is not known to contain any genes.
What is a bp (base pair)
A base pair is a pair of complementary bases in a double-stranded nucleic acid molecules, consisting of a purine in one strand linked by hydrogen bonds to a pyrimidine in the other strand.
G-C A-T purine-pyrimidine
Coding versus non-coding regions
The sequence that does not code for specific protein.
What are restriction enzymes
Enzymes that isolated from bacteria that produce them as a defensive tool against invading