Review Sheet for Lab Exam 2:

Respiration Lab
Basic processes
Know the basic difference between aerobic respiration and fermentation
Which one produces more ATP?
What is the relationship to oxygen?
How the respirometers work
What is the significance of the reaction below
CO2 + NaOH NaHCO3
How is water movement related to respiration rates
The significance of the respirometer with no plants in it
The experimental organisms
Why use plant seedlings? Why do they have to be dark grown
What is interesting about adult bean beetles versus darkling beetle larvae? Their energy sources?
Data analysis
Why subtract the rate measured in the blank respirometers from the experimental ones
Why divide the rates by weight of the organisms to get the specific rate
How would the data be analyzed best
Be able to do the data analysis given sample data
Fermentation Lab
The basic process
Why do the yeast in your tubes resort to fermentation instead of aerobic respiration
Why is alcohol fermentation needed in yeast to carry out glycolysis
How efficient is fermentation
What amylase does to starch
What gas is produced
The experiment
How do we take advantage of the gas produced to measure fermentation rates
What effect is temperature expected to have on this system
What is the point of performing treatment 2 (starch) versus treatment 3 (starch + amylase)
What are the hypotheses for the 3 treatments and why?
Given the data, be able to graph the data and discuss whether the data match the experimental predictions (without doing statistical analysis)
Starch prints
The logic behind the process
How a negative image is turned into a positive image inside the leaf tissue
Relationship between light levels and rate of photosynthesis / starch production
What the experiment tells us about transport of starch

Satellite DNA
What is satellite DNA
What is a bp (base pair)
Coding versus non-coding regions
What are restriction enzymes
Significance of digestion time
What we need to do (in general terms) to get the nuclear DNA
What is gel electrophoresis and how does it work
The role of the electrical current
The role of the gel material
The role of the dye
The role of the stain
Why do we sometimes see a smear of DNA as opposed to discreet bands on a gel
How to find the size of the DNA fragments showing up on a gel
Were there differences between the two species studied, based on your class data (be able to answer this looking at a picture of the gels)

Data Analysis
For a given scenario and data set be able to
Calculate t-values given the formulas
Interpret t-tests and the confidence levels
Figure out whether you should accept or reject an alternative hypothesis based on the results of the t-test