Second Language Learning
Undoubtedly, a ny person can learn and speak a foreign language, but the accuracy and ra pidit y of first language can't be repe a ted. When researche r s compare second language learning of children and of adults, t he y find that children ' s performance or mastery in second language learning surpasses that of the others .
C hildren's l earning is better than that of adults?
T here are factors that affect the learner's ability to learn a foreign Language.
Age:
The first f actor is the age of the learner. It influence s language learning in 3 ways:
Muscular Plasticity:
It is s aid that at the age of 5 this mu scular flexibility will not be as activ e after the age of 5. So it is better to start language learning before 5 .
Memorization A bilities:
It is said that when a person grows , the ability to retain information reaches its peak then it begins to decrease.


Neurobiological factories:
According to me dical research, it is said that the left hemisphere of brain is related to acquiring grammar and structure, while the right hemisphere is related to emotional processes. So, when the person grows older , the left hemisphere 's functions decrease . .
In p ut s
It is the learning s ituation or environment in which the learner is exposed to language. As for children, every where they are exposed to language , while a dults ' language is only restric ted to class .
Motivation:
I t is said that children are easily motivated than others . Therefore, motivations must be created for the adult learners in order to learn a second language.
How to motivate adults?
There are two types of motivation:
Integrative M otivation :
It is t he motivation to learn a language in order to identify with speakers of this language to understand them.
Instrumental Motivation:
It is the m otivation to learn a second language for practical pur pose s, e.g., in order to be a transla tor, or to get a job.


The Importance of Learning 2 nd Language in AL:
2 nd language learning is important in Al because :
Results of the search in 2 nd language language will help us solve problems related to language.
Research within 2 nd language learning is an area of interest on its own.
What's meant by 1 st language learning?
It is the first language acquired and is still spoken.
L anguage attrition means the loss of first language after it is learnt .
What's meant by 2 nd language learning?
It is a ny foreign language that is learnt after the 1 st language whether it is a second, third, or four th .
What is meant by a f ore ign language?
It is a language wh ich is learnt and used outside the community. In Egypt , we use English as a foreign language out side our community.
What is meant by language?
Language is more than sounds, vocab ulary , and grammar. It is a whole system of signals used for communication in community.
Aspects of language:
Linguistic comp etence includes wor ds, v ocab ular y , Grammar, and phonology
Discourse comp etence enable s the learner to engage in larger commu n i cation.
Pragmatic comp etence is the ability to interpret the language according to situations.
Ex. It is hot. This means, o pen the fan.
Sociolinguistic com petence is the ability to use the language according to different situations correctly.
Ex. You are going to an interview, you use a formal situation.
Sociocultural comp etence is t he ability of the learner to understand the language according to the culture.


















Proc esses of Second Language Learning
One of the principles of all learning is that we make sense of new information and ideas by relating them to our previous knowledge. In other words, learning occurs by relating what we know to the new information which we are learning. There are two main kinds of previous language knowledge which second language learners can use in order to make sense of t he new language