Sir Robert Peel developed nine principles which established a code of conduct for police officers to base their performance, professionalism and work ethic. The successful integration of law enforcement into a diverse and ever-changing cultural society is hinged upon the premise that professional law enforcement officials will receive more respect and cooperation from citizens than those personnel who do not embrace some type of code of conduct. These ethical expectations are the basis for modern policing and its role in helping to foster strong community relations between the public and law enforcement.

Sir Robert Peel?s position on policing to the diverse needs of the present day population
Sir Robert Peel defined the ethical requirements police officers must follow in order to be effective. Considered the ?father of modern policing,? his influence on current police practices and guidelines have essentially moved law enforcement personnel into a more professional and ethically responsible direction. (Sir Robert Peel, n.d.). Community policing, as well as, other modern policing practices are believed in part, to be influenced by Peel?s nine principles.
Peel?s theory held that if an officer should become a familiar presence within the community, citizens would eventually become less apprehensive about cooperating with and approaching law enforcement officials when information about criminal activity was known or suspected. Moreover, as officers became familiar with people and places within the community, they too would become better enabled to recognize suspicious persons or criminal activity. The familiarity between law enforcement personnel and community would ultimately lead to a higher criminal activity deterrence rate within that ?immediate vicinity? (Magna Carta, 2002).

Sir Robert Peel?s Position
Nine Principles
In his attempt to establish a police force that possessed discipline and professionalism, Sir Robert Peel coined nine principles that he believed each law enforcement official should ?observe and practice faithfully? (Sir Robert Peel, n.d.).
1. The basic mission for police is to prevent crime and disorder.
2. Public approval of police actions dictates the ability of the police to perform their duties.
3. Police must encourage the public to observe and obey the law by gaining their respect.
4. ?The degree of co-operation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionately to the necessity of the use of physical force?.
5. ?Police seek and preserve public favor not by catering to public opinion, but by constantly demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law?.
6. Physical force should only be used when all other means of persuasion, advice and warning have failed in attempt to restore order or secure adherence to the law.
7. ?Police, at all times, should maintain a positive relationship with the public that gives reality to the historic tradition that the police are the public and the public are the police?; understanding that police are merely citizens within the community who are paid to serve, protect and enforce the law in the interests of community welfare and existence.
8. Police should always focus their attention strictly towards their law enforcement duties, and never appear to encroach upon the powers of the judiciary.
9. Police efficiency is proven through the absence of crime and disorder (www.police-dynamics.com).

Present Day Population
Applying nine principles to modern policing
Modern society poses a diverse set of challenges for law enforcement in its efforts to effectively serve and protect the public. Such diversity exists in racial, cultural and religious groups, as well as, differences in public opinion. According to Sir Robert Peel, by setting forth and adhering to a specific set of professional standards, law enforcement individuals are more likely to gain the trust and respect of those within the community in which the officers serve.
Challenges for law enforcement
Throughout history, criminal activity and societal changes have required law enforcement to remain fluid and professional in its quest to ensure peace and avoid pandemonium. Countries such as Cuba and China often use their police force to suppress the opinions and actions of the country?s citizens. Such use of police force often leads to the mistreatment of citizens, corruption within law enforcement ranks or abuse of police power.
The United States is perceived by some to be a safe haven for those seeking political asylum. When individuals that have experienced police brutality, corruption or abuse of power from law enforcement in other countries, it is easy to feel apprehensive towards police officers within the United States. Through the implementation of community-oriented policing and the application of Peel?s Nine Principles, law enforcement officials are better enabled to understand