Style of J. D. Salinger

Many critics consider J.D. Salinger a very controversial writer,

for the subject matters that he writes.. J.D. Salinger?s works were

generally written during two time periods. The first time period was

during World War II, and the second time period was during the 1960?s.

Critics feel that the works during the 1960 time period were very

inappropriate, because of the problems for which he wrote. The main

characters were generally misfits of society. In most of his works,

he has the protagonist of the story go on a quest for happiness.

Salinger does not conform to the material happiness; the characters

undergo a spiritual happiness. The characters generally start out as

in bad conditions, through the end of his works they undergone changes

that change them for the better.

The works of J.D. Salinger show the quest for happiness through

religion, loneliness, and symbolism. Salinger?s works often use

religion in order to portray comfort. In Salinger?s Nine Stories

Franny Glass keeps reciting the "Jesus Prayer" to cope with the

suicide of her brother Seymour (Bloom in Bryfonski and Senick 69).

Salinger is able to use this prayer as a means of comfort for Franny.

The prayer ezds for the last hope for Franny in this situation.

Franny would be lost if their was no prayer. (Bryfonski and Senick

71). Salinger shows us comfort in Catcher in the Rye. Holden

Caufield, the protagonist, is very much in despair for losing his

girlfriend, so Caufield reads a passage in the Bible. This helps

Holden change his outlook on life (Salzberg 75). Holden was all alone

at this point and had no one to turn back on, until he found the Bible

(Salzberg 76). In both stories the characters had found themselves in

bad situations. The characters in these works have obstacles which

they must overcome in order to achieve happiness (Salzman 34).

Happiness is the very subezce which all of these characters are

striving for in Salinger?s works. Salinger uses religion in his works

to comfort them so that they can proceed on their quest to achieve

happiness. Salinger uses religion as a means for liberation. Salinger

uses much of the Zen philosophy, as in the case of Nine Stories, to

achieve this liberation (Madsen 93). In Nine Stories one of the

characters, Seymour Glass, is portrayed as Buddha in the sense that he

wants to be liberated as Buddha was in his life (Madsen 93). Seymour

Glass in Nine Stories has a certain philosophy about life, it is

similar to the Eightfold Path used by Buddha when achieving nirvana

(French in Matuz 212). Seymour Glass is on a quest to become free

from all of the suffering in his life as Buddha was from his life

(French in Matuz 213). Seymour follows the Eightfold path to become

liberated from suffering (Madsen 96). Seymour achieves "nirvana" by

living a good life and end anything that causes suffering. Seymour is

able to attain nirvana by committing suicide (Lundquist in Matuz 211).

Salinger shows us that when Seymour committed suicide he let go of

all of the suffering that he encountered, thus attaining the happiness

he longed for (French, Salinger Revisited 132). Salinger shows

liberation as an end to all suffering, thus creating happiness for the

character. (French, Salinger Revisited 133). The final function of

religion as a means to attain happiness was to gain peace In "The

Young Lion," Salinger uses religion to gain peace through a

fictitious war. In the story many of the soldiers were dying and the

countries were in turmoil (Lundquist 312). The leaders in the story

see a vision on the battlefield that changes them, and stops the war

(Lundquist 315). Salinger shows how religion can be a force used to

create happiness in a story, by creating peace (Lundquist 313).

Salinger is able to use religion as a means of attaining happiness

through peace. The story seemed very dismal, until religion

intervened and stopped the conflict. Salinger creates happiness for

the characters by stopping the conflict. In "The Stranger" Salinger

creates peace through a war by using more of the Zen philosophy.

Salinger?s creates a "Pact of Peace" which stops the conflict between

the Germans and Polish during WWII (Hamilton in Bryfonski and Senick

143) . The "Pact of Peace" was a teaching used by Buddha in the