Organizational Behavior Terminology and Concepts Paper
MGT/307
March 7, 2011



Organizational Behavior
?The study of individuals and groups in organizations is called organizational behavior or sometimes OB for short? (Schermerhorn, et al.). Organizational behavior is the study of human behavior in organizations. It is a discipline of academic nature dedicated to the understanding of group as well as individual behavior, relationships, or communication between people, and organizational dynamics. The desired result is to improve the performance of organizations and those people in them.
Organizational Culture
?Organizational culture is a shared set of beliefs and values within an organization? (Schermerhorn, et al.). There are three alternative types of organizational cultures; the constructive culture, the passive/defensive culture and the aggressive/defensive culture. In the constructive culture which is the most effective, the members are helpful in their interactions. They are encouraged to work together to meet their needs for achievement and self actualization. They are also humanistic, encouraging, and attached to the group. In a passive/defensive culture, the members are defensive in their actions and working relationships. They need approval, and seek to protect their job security. In an aggressive/defensive culture the members tend to be forceful in their interactions. They are found to be oppositional, competitive, and perfectionistic. They are most likely to act forcefully in a working relationship so that they can protect their status and positions. ?In many ways, culture is like personality. In a person, the personality is made up of the values, beliefs, underlying assumptions, interests, experiences, upbringing, and habits that create a person?s behavior? (Heathfield, 2011).
Diversity
?Workforce diversity describes how people differ in age, race, ethnicity, gender, physical ability, and sexual orientation? (Schermerhorn, et al.). Today?s businesses continually need to grow and expand. This growth not only needs to be with customers but also with the employees and characteristics within the business. This must include the issues of work ethic as well as the ability to understand organizational diversity. Organizational diversity includes more than the differences of cultures and ideas or philosophies. Culture in business starts with employee and managers diversities. The concepts of diversity will also include changes of the way that an employee works, what their intentions are in their personal lives, what their way of life is and what ideas they can contribute to the workplace.
Communication
Communication in today?s organization is varied because of the latest technologies. People have e-mail, PDA?s, cell phones, I-pads and many other devices or methods to ?get the word across.? Most organizational communication can be formal or informal, verbal, or written. Communication will involve any means in which customers or clients, supervisors, managers, and employees will receive business-related information. The purpose of communication is to share information, ideas, for customer relations, and better employee satisfaction. Most important, communication will aid the business in building and maintaining a competitive advantage with other businesses.
In the past, the most common method of communication between companies and employees has been simple. We have used bulletin boards to display information that would be pertinent to particular departments, inform employees of company policies and procedures as well as general information regarding benefits, schedules, and the like. Generally upper management will approve any notices that is placed on a bulletin board. Additional forms of communication would be via company newsletters, direct mail, periodicals, and memos. Today with the latest technologies and the Internet, e-mail has become the fastest and most accepted form of communication. As long as there is Internet or a network such as available through most cell phone carriers, one can receive information immediately. This is an advantage to businesses because information can be sent in an instant and to a multitude of recipients at the same time. E-mail is used by businesses for correspondence with its other divisions, other companies, its suppliers as well as its customers. This does not mean that companies should operate entirely ?paperless? as it is important to use memos and reports to facilitate getting the job done. Many companies will use live presentations, video conferences, and teleconferencing for communication.
We must mention that there are informal means of communication, but they are generally ?rumor mills,? here say, and gossip. This happens in all companies and is mostly beyond the control of the company. It is important that management keep the employees informed so that they may know what is happening that could affect their jobs and the company before any grapevine starts.