The Lais Of Marie De France
"Has been a lifesaver so many times!"
- Catherine Rampell, student @ University of Washington
"Exactly the help I needed."
- Jennifer Hawes, student @ San Jose State
"The best place for brainstorming ideas."
- Michael Majchrowicz, student @ University of Kentucky
The Lais of Marie De France
Romantic Love In Dante?s Inferno and The Lais of Marie De France
It is fascinating to take the time out to examine in similarities and differences in the way authors Dante Aligheri and Marie De France impart to their readers their views on romantic love. It can almost be said that the two perspectives are "similarly different."
Marie De France, like Dante, has a distinctive literary form. Her narrative twists and female perspective, differentiate her vastly from Dante. She focuses on stories from women's points of view, she involves her female characters much more actively than Dante. For example, note that Francesca is the only female in hell who has a speaking part. In total, there are only sixteen women even mentioned in Dante?s subterranean journey. Nine of them are in Limbo, and out of the remaining seven, five reside in Francesca's "circle in Hell." Throughout the Comedy, Dante appears to view women as the center of some sort of tragic love triangle, while throughout the Lais Marie?s women are shown to have character and grace.
Canto V of Dante?s Divine Comedy Inferno, takes the reader to the first compartment of true hell, residence for those whose sins have earned them eternal damnation. Dante?s cranes symbolize lovers of the highest order, lovers who have died in the name of and for the very essence of love. These characters are of high social standing, as he stresses the importance of social hierarchy, and how it is affected by that which man calls "love."
Dante uses symbolism, characters and literary illustration, to impart his central message that the ultimate form of betrayal which stems from "love" (or, to the author, misguided romantic notion) is adultery. His Francesca is married to Gianciotto Malatesta, who is portrayed to be a crude and to some, a deformed man. According to some interpretations, Francesca was really courted and wed by Gianciotto's proxy, his handsome younger brother, Paolo. Justified or not, Francesca and Paolo become lovers, and are both slain by the jealous husband and brother.
The central message found in the Lais, is the ability to love. It is the most frequently used character virtue, appearing in all of the twelve lays. The ability to love properly, is paramount in Marie's ideal knight. This is shown most clearly in Guigemar. The reader sees the title character attain the status of the ideal knight, by overcoming his inability to love.
Dante and Marie both condemn adulterous liaisons between a man and a woman, though their latitude as to what constitutes this type of relationship is very different. Dante often references mythical or ancient stories of tragic lovers, as if to reinforce the message that they who don?t remember the past, are condemned to repeat it.
She is Semiramis of whom we read that she succeeded Ninus and was his spouse:
she held the land which now the Sultan rules.
The other is she who, loving, slew herself
and broke faith with the ashes of Sichaeus.
Next is lustful Cleopatra.
See Helen, for whom so much wicked
time was spent, and see the great Achilles
who at the end fought with love.
Francesca and Paolo are shown reading the tale of Lancelot and Guinevere. As Galahalt was the go-between for the two ill-fated lovers, with Paolo and Francesca, Dante gives this function to the book and its author. Some feel that the poet implies inherent dangers in reading "inflammatory"(romantic) literature, as such a love story was considered to be. Francesca is often likened to Guinevere, as a shallow user of courtly love. Dante uses the reading about Guinevere and Lancelot, to bring Francesca and Paolo to a self prophecy fulfillment of sorts. They read of the demise of these two ill-fated lovers, yet continued with their own adulterous affair, to ultimately meet a similar fate. Where Dante does not do so directly, Francesca does. She is seen placing blame for her demise not upon her own weakness, but upon a book and its "subversive" author.
Marie terms adultery as being "foolishness, wickedness and debauchery," to take lovers wherever one goes, then boast of the sexual deeds. Although similar to Francesca and Paolo?s "love" in many ways, Marie?s interpretation of love in Guigemar is quite different from Dante?s. After wounded while hunting, Guigemar is taken in by the Lady of the Lord of the city he
View Full Essay