The Rise of The Golden Horde











May 4, 1997

HS123h--Liberty

Block 3



Thesis:

The Mongols rose to power because they were a highly advanced culture as seen through their

military technology, their trade and preservation of elaborate art work, and their fair

administrative policy.



The Mongols were one of the most feared groups in history. The very mention of the

name "Genghis Khan" struck terror into every king and every peasant. How did a scattered

collection of goat herders, led by the fatherless child of a minor chieftain, build the largest

empire in history? How were they able to build an empire that would eventually stretch across

Asia, India, the Mid-East and Eastern Europe? The Mongols were able to rise to power because

they were a highly advanced culture as seen through their military technology, their trade and

preservation of elaborate art work, and their fair administrative policy.

One of the greatest factors in the Mongol's favor was their highly advanced military

technology. Mongols were so skilled at siege-craft that they rarely lost when besieging a castle.

In order to use the latest in military siege craft, the Mongols contracted Chinese and Middle

Eastern engineers who could design, build and use siege devices like catapults (Lemonick, 67).

On one occasion the Mongols built their own wall outside the city's own walls so they could

shoot missiles from relative safety. When the Mongols besieged a city, they also used many

ingenious strategies. One of the most commonly used Mongol tactic was to besiege the city for a

while, then fall back. The army inside the city walls, thinking the Mongols were retreating,

would open the gates and come out in pursuit. From there the powerful Mongols would destroy

the tired army, which was probably suffering water and food shortages inside the sealed-off

walls. One very clever tactic used by the Mongols was the use of water.

"On one occasion that the caliph's troops ventured forth, the Mongols broke a dike

behind them, trapping them with flood waters." (Edwards, The Great Khans, 25)

This quote refers to an incident when the city of Nishapur, capital of Shah Mohammed. The

Mongols used almost the same strategy when attacking Xi Xia. The Mongols, unable to take the

city by conventional means, looked to a nearby river and broke its levy. This flood either

threatened to or did destroy the city's wall, and forced the city to surrender (Edwards, Lord of the

Mongols, 37). The Mongols also had good weapons for non-siege warfare. Their greatest

battlefield asset was their horse. The hardy Mongols ponies were treated with such care that

many people today may think of it as pampering. Because of these ponies, the Mongol cavalry

had the ability to advance on its enemy at astonishing speed. Mongols also made use of stirrups,

which allowed them to ride standing up and to shoot arrows in any direction. The Mongols also

had a well-developed communication system, called "orto" that involved riders carrying

messages on horseback, similar to the pony express. This system was highly important in

learning about and deterring any potential enemies (Kessier, 52).

The Mongols also made a lasting contribution through their preservation and creation of

superb art work. A great gift of the Mongols was their preservation of Chinese, Indian, and Mid-

Eastern art styles. During the reign of Kublai Khan many Chinese works including porcelain and

silk clothing were brought to his court.

"Bejeweled and robed in silk, he [Kublai Khan] ruled from a palace whose walls

were plated with gold and silver and decorated with the figures of dragons, beasts

and birds" (Time, 26)

Kublai obviously had a taste for Chinese luxuries. By bringing artworks to his court, he was able

to preserve them. The Mongols also influenced the works of other countries, as seen here:

"The discovery of Chinese and Indian inspired imagery on porcelain and sculpture

confirm Mongolia's role in the cultural exchange between China and Eurasia."

(Lemonick, 66)

]Much artwork that is today considered to be ancient Chinese was influenced or actually made

by the Mongols. They were able to make such influences due to their control of the "silk road,"

the thousand mile long trade network linking Russia, Mongolia, China and India. On this trade

route the Mongols also traded their own work. Their art, however, was much more practical. As

opposed to making vases and paintings, the Mongols carved elaborate designs on their saddles

and weapons like their bows and arrows.

Although the Mongols are often portrayed as ruthless cannibals, their treatment of their

vassals was fair and just. The Mongols did not randomly attack and pillage their subject. It was

only when the vassals rebelled that the Mongols attacked. One Mongol technique was