There are diverse learner differences in learning a second language. For one, in learning a second language, there must be the involvement of a second or even a third party. The second party assists in disseminating the knowledge to the individual who wants to learn the language. However, "The process of second language acquisition is dependent on what the learner does and very little on what teachers does" (Schmitt 2002, p.50). The goals of the individual also bring out the individual learner differences. In learning a second language, some individuals go for communicative competence. This might include basic communication skills, which is the main goal of the individual. I am of the view that the goal of an individual learner is critical because it determines what level the individual has the will to go in learning a second language.
My analysis of current debates on SLA reveals that they have embarked on individual differences. Doman (2006) contributed vast literature on this topic asserting that not a single individual is similar to the other physically, psychologically or mentally. Therefore, these differences reveal the reason why individuals learn second languages differently. He supports Piaget's theory of cognitive development, which asserts that the human mind is different from the other even in the process of learning.
Therefore, I argue that problems, frustrations and challenges as being part of SLA affect the individuals differently. The individuals differ in the way they handle such issues, which ultimately determines how they learn a second language. Generally, Individual learner differences are evident in SLA, explanations have been provided by major scholars in this context. However, the ideal way to explain these differences is through developing an understanding of some of the models espoused by scholars on motivation and SLA.
Conversely, second languages are difficult to learn, which has been a huge challenge for many individuals. Motivation is therefore defined as critical in the entire process. Motivation is defined by major scholars including Hedge (2000, pp. 17 - 28), Ellis (2005, pp. 305-352), McDonough (2007, pp. 369-371) and Celce -Murcia (2002, pp. 119-134) as the psychological quality essential for fostering individual goal achievement. Therefore, I can argue that in second language acquisitions, language proficiency is the main goal. The individual's desire to master a language is the main goal, which motivates him or her to work towards its achievement. Scholars have supported this argument by asserting that coaches can motivate learners and vice versa in the process of learning. With such assertion, there is a clear view that motivation varies between individuals. An individual is therefore unique in his own way depending on his or her stipulated goal of learning the second language.
Motivation is also a transitive concept. In this context, the coach motivates the learners and their reception also motivates the coach to teach the language. Gottlieb (2006, pp. 56) asserted that "the long-drawn out process of learning a second language is the reason why individual differences exist in SLA". In his article on Teaching and Researching Motivation, Dornyei (2001, pp. 28 - 30) argued that people have diverse cognitive behaviours. In this case, individuals respond differently to diverse environments. Therefore, it is arguable that individuals always differ in their reception to language learning situations. The book by Lightbown & Spada (1993, p.135) also supported this notion asserting that individuals have diverse preferences. The environment in itself is a great determinant of the diverse response by individuals, and this has a great impact in language learning.
Conversely, I argue that both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation determines the level of individual learning. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations subject the individual to a particular level of acceptance in second language acquisition. In the same light, individuals handle intrinsic and extrinsic pressures differently, which makes them different in the way they learn a second language. Ellis (2005, pp. 305-352) supported these arguments by writing an article on individual differences in second language learning. He was of the view that an individual is subjective to internal and external pressures even in the process of learning a language. Earlier, Skehan (1991, pp. 12 - 19) had written a book on Individual differences in second-language learning. He was of the same view. It is