Timeline History of Russia 1533-1991


The Russian Empire, covering over one-sixth of the world, is

governed by the sovereignty of Czar Ivan the Terrible. The feudal

system oppresses every man, woman and child as the Czar releases "Tax

Collectors" to maintain support for the nobles in the land. Brigands

and financial extortionists persecute any lower class citizen who

refuses to help contribute to the Czar's regime.


Under Czar Peter I (Peter the Great), the Russian Empire begins

to flourish with traces of traditional social structure modifications

in the country. Observing the radical advances of western

civilizations, Peter orders the modernization of the army, creation of

a navy, encourages mercantilism and foreign trade, and gives women

more rights. Nevertheless, the Empire remains stricken in poverty over

slow reforms and the overbearing presence of feudalism. 1825-1861

The feudal system begins to fail when the goals and desires of

the common peasant cannot be achieved through such an archaic

doctrine. Various successive Czars attempt social reforms which do not

leave an impact on the country's well-being. In December of 1825, an

uprising from the populace occures when they demand changes to the

economic system. With the development of the American, French and

Spanish constitutions, the serfs now demanded the abolishment of the

monarchy dictatorship, communal ownership of land and many other civil

and social reforms. Unfortunately, their rebellion was quickly

dismantled by the Czar's military faction and the system remained in



Czar Nicholas II finally realized that his current economic

monarchy was holding back the development of the empire. He therefore

created a parliamentary system in 1905 which would decrease the number

of strikes and violent outbursts generating from the peasants. This

representative assembly (called a Duma) was convened a total of four

times during the first World War and gave legitimacy to other

political factions within the empire and would hopefully increase

civil rights.


World War I led to the abdication (resignation) of the Czar as

the people revolted against his useless monarchy. Famine, disease and

death were spreading like wildfire as the Russians aided France

against the militia of Germany during World War I. The population lost

its faith in the monarchy and installed a provisional government that

would keep the country from disintegrating. However, this government

refused to intervene during the fragile years of the war and lost its

power to a communist party called the Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks, led

by Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Nikolai Lenin), overthrew the provisional

government and implemented their style of authority to the empire.

Their objectives were to lead the Russian empire into prosperity while

utilizing Karl Marx's proposed doctrine for a communal, classless

environment where the workers will be using their abilities to satisfy

their own needs. The Union was now born and the Communist Manifesto

was finally going to be activated. The C zar and his family were

captured and executed, thus ending the oppressive autocracy that had

befallen the empire for hundreds of years. Eventually, the central

government was overtaken by Lenin and his military leaders, Leon

Trotsky and Josef Stalin. Although a minority party, the Bolsheviks

decided to implement capitalistic modifications to the fragile

economy in order to aid the communistic backlash that would follow.

The New Economic Policy (NEP) created by Lenin would allow peasants to

keep a certain amount of profit for themselves, rather than having the

government subsidize all of it. Unfortunately, Lenin died just as his

policy had started to work.


The two apparent heirs to Lenin's regime were Josef Stalin and

Leon Trotsky. Although Trotsky was better suited for the position

(with his strong political inclinations towards reasonable social

adaptability), Josef Stalin assumed controlled and subsequently

ordered the exile of all apposing cabinet ministers, including

Trotsky. Anyone in the Union who objected to his decisions was sent to

Siberian prison camps or murdered. He now had full control without any

intervention from other liberal or moderate parties. He decided to

concentrate on improving military strength and building on improving

the Soviet economy, rather than follow Lenin's revolutionary goal of

dominating the world. In order to obtain the immense amount of money

needed to maintain his militia, he began a series of five year

programs which would force the average farmer to meet a quota by the

end of the harvest and then have the state subsidize all of the

production. This system, aptly named collectivization, reprimanded all

of the average