Xenophobia: fear of foreigners/strangers

Nativism: the idea that public policy should favor native-born instead of foreign born since most immigrants weren?t born in CA and felt they should be favored.

Murder of Gordon Chase
Who- Gordon Chase was an Af-A barber in SF
What-White man who stole his sister\'s merchandise tells Chase to apologize to him, Chase won\'t, man shoots Chase, white man who was getting hair cut couldn\'t testify because he was proven to be 1/16 black (mulatto), murderer went free
Why (importance)- Enraged the SF black community who would organize the SF Franchise League as a result

San Francisco Franchise League
Who- African Americans
What- Hired lawyers, had people sign petitions, lobbied the state legislature, 1863 because of their efforts blacks and mulattos were allowed to testify
Why (importance)- Blacks got rights by demanding it, although it was repealed in 1872

Juanita of Downieville
Who- Married Latina woman (was married to a miner)
What-Man tried to rape her (she said) and she stabbed him, his friends said he was trying to apologize, a lynch mob tried to hang her, she ends up hanging herself
Where- Downieville, CA
When- July 4th, 1851
Why (importance)- Shows how racist people were towards Latinos during Gold Rush

Joaquin Murieta
Who- Most famous Mexican bandit
What- Famous thief, CA State Legislature posted a $1000 reward for a hispanic man that goes by the name Joaquin, Captain Harry Love went after him, shot and killed him and his accomplice
Where- CA
Why (importance)- Historians doubt whether there was ever a real Joaquin Murieta (he was in multiple places at once)

Land Law of 1851
Who- Californios
What- Forced Californios who claimed to have grants to have to appear before the Board of Land Commissioners, because of settlers squatting on their lands (because of Gold Rush)
Where- CA
When- 1851
Why (importance)- Californios ended up giving up a lot of their land to prove they owned it.

Board of Land Commissioners
Who- Californios had to prove that they had land grants
What- 800 cases came before the board, Land Act of 1851 required them to do this, drained their funds over time from lawyers, 600 cases were proven
When- 1851, sometimes took 17 years average
Why (importance)- Presuming someone guilty until proven innocent (doesn\'t match up with USA\'s constitution.)

Foreign Miner\'s Tax of 1850
Who- CA Legislature and Latinos
What- Was a step against Latinos, had to pay $20 to mine, was a prohibitory tax, not enforced against anyone except Spanish speakers, native Californios were kicked out also
Where- CA
When- 1850
Why (importance)- 10,000 Spanish speaking miners left Gold Rush country because they couldn\'t pay the tax

An Act for the Government and Protection of Indians
Who- Dealt with Native American Indians
What- Included three clauses: Vagrancy clause, Bail Out Clause, Apprentice Clause
Where- CA
When- 1850
Why (importance)- A more accurate name would be an Act for the Exploitation and Enslavement of Indians

Vagrancy Clause
Who- Native Americans
What- If a Native American was walking around idly, he could be arrested for vagrancy
Where- CA
When- 1850 and on (in An Act for the Government and Protection of Indians)
Why (importance)- Poor treatment of Indians in CA

Bail Out Clause
Who- Native Americans
What- If a rancher needed workers, he could go to local jail and bail a NA out, had to clothe and feed NA during the time he was working off the bail money
Where- CA
When- 1850 and on (in An Act for the Government and Protection of Indians)
Why (importance)- Very poor treatment of Indians because they couldn\'t even testify against people who were working them.

Apprentice Clause
Who- Native American children
What- Said that Native American mothers could turn over their children to white families as apprentices, resulted in NA children being kidnapped and being sold to California families as essentially slaves until a certain age, children could go for $200 each in 1862
Where- CA
When- 1850 and on (in An Act for the Government and Protection of Indians)
Why (importance)- Bad treatment of NAs

Theodore Judah
Who- Civil engineer from NY
What- Discovered a route for the railroad to go through the Sierras, had to convince the Big Four to help him fund the project (others had not believed that it would happen), not given much credit later on
Where- CA
When- 1860s
Why (importance)- He makes the project of the Transcontinental Railroad possible, finds support from the Big Four

The Big Four
Who- Crocker, Huntington, Hopkins and Stanford
What- Also known as the "Octopus", each invested $6,000 in RR, got back $200 million
Where- CA
When- 1860s and on
Why (importance)- Involved in very corrupt dealings, bought and sold politicians, maintained firm control over