Using the Habituation Technique to Evaluate a Piag
This essay Using the Habituation Technique to Evaluate a Piag has a total of 1227 words and 5 pages.
Using the Habituation Technique to Evaluate a Piagetian HypothesisThe purpose of this paper is to use the habituation technique in young infants to evaluate one hypothesis derived from Piaget's theory of cognitive development. I will compare 5-months olds in a task that involves possible and impossible outcomes. Piaget's theory specifies the cognitive competencies of children of this age. 1a. The sensorimotor stage begins at birth and extends until the child is about 2 years old. During the stage, children are trying to explore and understand the world through the senses by looking, grasping, and mouthing. 1b. Object permanence is the awareness that things continue to exist even if they are not perceived, meaning knowing that something still exists even when it is not seen. Piaget would explain the absence of object permanence in young infants by using an experiment where he would show an infant a toy and then hid it from them. If the infant were younger than 5 months, they would act as if the toy hadn't existed and continue on. According to Piaget, object permanence would begin to emerge at 5 months because the infant's memory is improving. 1c. By the age of 18 months object permanence is firmly in place, stranger anxiety occurs. Stranger anxiety is fear of unfamiliar people. Object permanence and stranger anxiety might emerge at the same time because the infant is already accustomed to familiar objects and people and unrecognizable people can cause confusion and fear. 1d. McCrink and Wynn outline a theory that differs from Piaget's that shows that infants have a natural sense of numbers. This shows their ability to know the result of simple mathematic operation. This is a form of object permanence Piaget did not believe infants possessed.Habituation is a method that might be used to explore predictions of Piaget's theory. 2a. Habituation is the lack of response to repeated stimulus. Dishabituation is a continued response to a repeated stimuli. Habituation helps researchers test the cognitive capacity of infants by displaying how much they can perceive. And also how well they are recognizing things, retaining information, and assimilating them into schemas. 2b. An alternative technique that can be used to test the cognitive capacity of infants is using human voices and how infants can recognize them. 2c. The advantages of using habituation with infants rather than an alternative technique is that there is a wider variety of stimuli that can be used for experiment and testing.An experiment was performed to examine the age at which infants recognize certain outcomes as impossible. Five-month old infants were tested in the procedure depicted in Figure 1. 3a. In step 1 of this experiment there are two teddy bears placed in a case. In step 2 a screen comes down revealing two teddy bears to an infant. In step 3 the screen comes up and an empty hand enters. In step 4 the hand removes one of the teddy bears. In step 5 there are two outcomes, in the possible outcome the screen falls and there is one teddy bear left. In the impossible outcome, the screen falls and there are two teddy bear left. 3b. This experiment has two conditions - the possible and impossible outcome. The impossible outcome would most appropriately be the experimental condition because infants have a sense of the mathematical operation for the possible outcome rather than impossible. Different infants would be tested in the each condition to measure variability. A control group is necessary to distinguish how an infant can perceive the possible and impossible outcomes. The control group would be for the possible outcome. 3c. The habituation technique is used in this experiment by demonstrating how infants are used to the two items being placed and the difference of stare time to the possible or impossible outcome. The independent variable is the two conditions and the dependent is the amount of time the infant stares. Figure 2 contains results from the experiment. The results bear strongly on the experimental hypothesis. 4a. The experimental hypothesis using Piaget ' s theory is that infants without object permanence will not continue their responses once the object isn ' t in view. I f the objects are shown repeat ed
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