Supporting question 1 What made the Roman conquests an empire?

Formative Performance Task List and describe the characteristics and attributes of the Roman Empire.

There were several factors as to why the Roman conquests was an empire. First of all, the Romans were tolerant of cultural and religious differences and didn’t force conquered people to adopt Roman religion or language. They only required that they make no alliances with any foreign powers. They weren’t even required to pay Roman taxes. The Empire also established a system of laws with provided that all persons accused of crime were innocent until proven guilty; that the accused had the right to question his accuser in court; and that a judge could set aside a law he thought was unfair. Agriculture was conducted on Latifundia, which were operated by slaves. The crops that were grown were used for export to enrich the empire. Entertainment was provided free of charge at the circus maximus and the Coliseum, where gladiatorial battles were conducted. The Roman empire also had a large army that was well disciplined and equipped. They had good trading features and was a strong nation. Last but not least, provincial distributions made their rule better and stronger.
As shown in Source A, the Roman empire spreads throughout Morocco, Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Turkey, Greece, Italy, France, and Spain. The whole empire was bordered by the Mediterranean sea and this brought about great advantages for the empire. The Mediterranean offered food to sustain the population, water for irrigation which brought prosperity with agriculture, and transportation which increased communication and trade. There was also the Sahara and Atlantic that provided protection for the empire. According to source B it states, “The Sahara and the Atlantic together provided boundaries that, once reached, did not really need to be defended.” Climate also played a big role in the roman empire because it was suitable for crops to grow. It states in Source B, “Climatic conditions, broadly similar to those we experience today, had perhaps contributed to the general prosperity of the period, making it easier for peasant cultivators to produce the surpluses on which states and empires depended.” Lastly, according to source B, the empire was mainly run by the rich yet the poor were supportive. Everyone had a part in society, which kept it stable and organized. It states, “ The empire was run by and for the aristocratic and the rich, yet was broadly and often enthusiastically supported not merely by the lower classes but by the residents of conquered territories: “Romans imagined [the empire] as a collective effort: Senate and people, Rome and her allies, the men and the gods of the city working together.”


Supporting Question 2 Why did the Roman Empire fall?
Formative Performance Task Write a summary explaining accepted reasons for why the Roman Empire fell.

Different historians have different theories on why the Roman Empire fell, or if it even fell at all. According to Source A, Edward Gibbon wrote about how the rise of religion may have caused the empire to fall. It states, “As the happiness of a future life is the great object of religion, we may hear without surprise or scandal that the introduction, or at least the abuse of Christianity, had some influence on the decline and fall of the Roman empire.” It was said that the clergies preached the doctrines of patience and pusillanimity instead of preaching about what could’ve been done to better the empire. The virtues of society were discouraged and there was no more military spirit. A large portion of the empire’s wealth was spent on demands of charity and devotion and the soldiers were paid by their abstinence and chastity, rather than their ability to fight. It also says in Source A, “Faith, zeal, curiosity, and more earthly passions of malice and ambition, kindled the flame of theological discord; the church, and even the state, were distracted by religious factions, whose conflicts were sometimes bloody and always implacable; the attention of the emperors was diverted from camps to synods; the Roman world was oppressed by a new species of tyranny; and the persecuted sects became the secret enemies of their country….”. According to this theory, the introduction of Christianity occupied the minds of everyone in the society and this led to