In the modern world witchcraft is a form of nature religion that

emphasizes the healing arts. The term is also applied to various kinds

of magic practiced in Asian, African, and Latin American communities.

Little is known about the history of witchcraft in Europe, and what is

known comes from hostile sources. In traditional European society

witchcraft was believed to be a kind of harmful sorcery associated with

the worship of Satan, or the devil (a spirit hostile to God).

The European doctrine of witchcraft was formulated in the late Middle

Ages. Just how many of the beliefs about witches were based on reality

and how many on delusion will never be known. The punishment of supposed

witches by the death penalty did not become common until the 15th

century. The first major witch-hunt occurred in Switzerland in 1427, and

the first important book on the subject, the Malleus maleficarum (Hammer

of Sorceresses), appeared in Germany in 1486. The persecution of witches

reached its height between 1580 and 1660, when witch trials became

almost universal throughout western Europe.

Geographically, the center of witch-burning lay in Germany, Austria, and

Switzerland, but few areas were left untouched by it. No one knows the

total number of victims. In southwestern Germany alone, however, more

than 3,000 witches were executed between 1560 and 1680. Not all witch

trials ended in deaths. In England, where torture was prohibited, only

about 20 percent of accused witches were executed (by hanging); in

Scotland, where torture was used, nearly half of all those put on trial

were burned at the stake, and almost three times as many witches (1,350)

were killed as in England. Some places had fewer trials than others. In

the Dutch republic, no witches were executed after 1600, and none were

tried after 1610. In Spain and Italy accusations of witchcraft were

handled by the Inquisition, and although torture was legal, only a dozen

witches were burned out of 5,000 put on trial. Ireland apparently

escaped witch trials altogether. Many witch trials were provoked, not by

hysterical authorities or fanatical clergy, but by village quarrels

among neighbors.

About 80% of all accused witches were women. Traditional theology

assumed that women were weaker than men and more likely to succumb to

the devil. It may in fact be true that, having few legal rights, they

were more inclined to settle quarrels by resorting to magic rather than


All these aspects of witchcraft crossed over to the Americas with

European colonists. In the Spanish and French territories cases of

witchcraft were under the jurisdiction of church courts, and no one

suffered death on this charge. In the English colonies about 40 people

were executed for witchcraft between 1650 and 1710, half of them in the

famous Salem Witch Trials of 1692.

Witch trials declined in most parts of Europe after 1680; in England the

death penalty for witchcraft was abolished in 1736. In the late 17th and

18th centuries one last wave of witch persecution afflicted Poland and

other areas of eastern Europe, but that ended by about 1740. The last

legal execution of a witch occurred in Switzerland in 1782.

Beginning in the 1920s, witchcraft was revived in Europe and America by

groups that considered it a survival of pre-Christian religious

practices. This phenomenon was partly inspired by such books as Margaret

Murray's The Witch Cult in Western Europe (1921). Some forms of modern

witchcraft follow the traditions of medieval herbalists and lay healers.

The term witch-hunt is used today to describe a drive to punish

political criminals or dissidents without regard for the normal legal