Search Results for aspart

The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene Introduction: Cystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that exerts its main effects on the digestive system and the lungs. This disease is the most common genetic disorder amongst Caucasians. Cystic fibrosis affects about one in 2,500 people, with one in twenty five being a heterozygote. With the use of antibiotics, the life span of a person afflicted with CF can be extended up to thirty years however, most die before the age of thirteen.1 Since so man
Protein domains
Protein domains
protein domains Describe the Nature, Structure, and Function of Domains in Proteins Domains "Within a single subunit [polypeptide chain], contiguous portions of the polypeptide chain frequently fold into compact, local semi-independent units called domains." - Richardson, 1981 In the hierarchial organisation of proteins, domains are found at the highest level of tertiary structure. Since the term was first used by Wetlaufer (1973) a number of definitions exist reflecting author bias, however all
Fatal familial insomnia
Fatal familial insomnia
fatal familial insomnia Fatal familial insomnia is a genetic disorder. It manifests itself by many symptoms due to the degeneration of a certain part of the brain, the thalamus. The disease also results in the formation of amyloid plaques. This is the build up of a waxy substance made of proteins associated with polysaccharides. The disease is a result of a mutation of a normal protein that is associated with brain tissue. This is the prion protein. In the case of fatal familial insomnia, the mu
Chemistry Research
Chemistry Research
Chemistry Research CHAPTER 32 The tallest tree is the Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) approx 110 m The tallest Angiosperm is the Australian Eucalyptus regnans Water Uptake and transport (Fig. 32.1) = water is essential because: transport solute, cool the body, photosynthesis and Turgor pressure Osmosis- movement of H2) through a semi-impermeable membrane Osmotic potential ( o)-depend on dissolve solute: Hi concentration means more negative o. Isoosmotic-two solution with same o; Hypoosmotic- solu
protein domains
protein domains
protein domains Describe the Nature, Structure, and Function of Domains in Proteins Domains "Within a single subunit [polypeptide chain], contiguous portions of the polypeptide chain frequently fold into compact, local semi-independent units called domains." - Richardson, 1981 In the hierarchial organisation of proteins, domains are found at the highest level of tertiary structure. Since the term was first used by Wetlaufer (1973) a number of definitions exist reflecting author bias, however all
Aspartame
Aspartame
Aspartame I have had friends who were having symptoms, had all kinds of tests and were taking all kinds of medications and when they stopped consuming Aspartame, the symptoms disappeared. Written by Lisa Zak Physician Credentialer University Pediatric Associates, Inc. Women Children\'s Hospital of Buffalo: In October of 2001, a friend\'s sister started getting very sick. She had stomach spasms and she was having a hard time getting around. Walking was a major chore. It took everything she had ju
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene IntroductionCystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that exerts its main effects on the digestive system and the lungs. This disease is the most common genetic disorder amongst Caucasians. Cystic fibrosis affects about one in 2,500 people, with one in twenty five being a heterozygote. With the use of antibiotics, the life span of a person afflicted with CF can be extended up to thirty years however, most die before the age of thirteen.1 Since so many
The Dangers of Aspartame Discussed and Validity of
The Dangers of Aspartame Discussed and Validity of
The Dangers of Aspartame Discussed and Validity of Relevant Studies Questioned The Federal Drug Administration approved aspartame, an artificial sweetener surrounded by controversy, for widespread consumption in 1983. Its brand name, NutraSweet, is a division of Monsanto, a major drug company who acquired G.D. Searle, the original drug company affiliated with aspartame. Aspartame is used in everything from diet food to sugarless gum, but its major use is in diet drinks. There have been studies d
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene Introduction: Cystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that exerts its main effects on the digestive system and the lungs. This disease is the most common genetic disorder amongst Caucasians. Cystic fibrosis affects about one in 2,500 people, with one in twenty five being a heterozygote. With the use of antibiotics, the life span of a person afflicted with CF can be extended up to thirty years however, most die before the age of thirteen.1 Since so man
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene Introduction: Cystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that exerts its main effects on the digestive system and the lungs. This disease is the most common genetic disorder amongst Caucasians. Cystic fibrosis affects about one in 2,500 people, with one in twenty five being a heterozygote. With the use of antibiotics, the life span of a person afflicted with CF can be extended up to thirty years however, most die before the age of thirteen.1 Since so man
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene IntroductionCystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that exerts its main effects on the digestive system and the lungs. This disease is the most common genetic disorder amongst Caucasians. Cystic fibrosis affects about one in 2,500 people, with one in twenty five being a heterozygote. With the use of antibiotics, the life span of a person afflicted with CF can be extended up to thirty years however, most die before the age of thirteen.1 Since so many
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene Introduction: Cystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that exerts its main effects on the digestive system and the lungs. This disease is the most common genetic disorder amongst Caucasians. Cystic fibrosis affects about one in 2,500 people, with one in twenty five being a heterozygote. With the use of antibiotics, the life span of a person afflicted with CF can be extended up to thirty years however, most die before the age of thirteen.1 Since so man
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene Introduction: Cystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that exerts its main effects on the digestive system and the lungs. This disease is the most common genetic disorder amongst Caucasians. Cystic fibrosis affects about one in 2,500 people, with one in twenty five being a heterozygote. With the use of antibiotics, the life span of a person afflicted with CF can be extended up to thirty years however, most die before the age of thirteen.1 Since so man
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene Introduction: Cystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that exerts its main effects on the digestive system and the lungs. This disease is the most common genetic disorder amongst Caucasians. Cystic fibrosis affects about one in 2,500 people, with one in twenty five being a heterozygote. With the use of antibiotics, the life span of a person afflicted with CF can be extended up to thirty years however, most die before the age of thirteen.1 Since so man
Artificial Sweeteners
Artificial Sweeteners
Artificial Sweeteners Artificial sweeteners can taste wonderful to your taste buds, however can be very dangerous to a persons health. Almost everything people consume today has artificial sweeteners, such as Aspartame, Stevioside, Acesulfame, and Saccharin. The artificial sweetener Aspartame (i.e. Nutrasweet), (APM) is a dipeptide. A dipeptide is when 2 amino acids are linked together (as you know, amino acids make up proteins). The 2 amino acids are phenylalanine and aspartic acid. There is a
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene The Cystic Fibrosis Gene Introduction Cystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that exerts its main effects on the digestive system and the lungs. This disease is the most common genetic disorder amongst Caucasians. Cystic fibrosis affects about one in 2,500 people, with one in twenty five being a heterozygote. With the use of antibiotics, the life span of a person afflicted with CF can be extended up to thirty years however, most die before the age of
Protein Digestion
Protein Digestion
Protein Digestion Proteins are made up of amino acids. There are 20 amino acids commonly found in biological materials. These can be divided into 2 groups, indispensable and dispensable. The indispensable amino acids cannot be produced by the body so are required in the diet. The dispensable amino acids can be produced by the body so are not required in the body. |Indispensable amino acids |Dispensable amino acids | |Isoleucine |Alanine | |Leucine |Arginine | |Lysine |Aspartic acid | |Methione |
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
Word Count: 2443 Introduction: Cystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that exerts its main effects on the digestive system and the lungs. This disease is the most common genetic disorder amongst Caucasians. Cystic fibrosis affects about one in 2,500 people, with one in twenty five being a heterozygote. With the use of antibiotics, the life span of a person afflicted with CF can be extended up to thirty years however, most die before the age of thirteen.1 Since so many people
Artificial Sweeteners
Artificial Sweeteners
Artificial Sweeteners [Category]: Science [Paper Title]: Artificial Sweeteners [Text]: Artificial sweeteners can taste wonderful to your taste buds, however can be very dangerous to a persons health. Almost everything people consume today has artificial sweeteners, such as Aspartame, Stevioside, Acesulfame, and Saccharin. The artificial sweetener Aspartame (i.e. Nutrasweet), (APM) is a dipeptide. A dipeptide is when 2 amino acids are linked together (as you know, amino acids make up proteins). T
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene The Cystic Fibrosis Gene Introduction Cystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that exerts its main effects on the digestive system and the lungs. This disease is the most common genetic disorder amongst Caucasians. Cystic fibrosis affects about one in 2,500 people, with one in twenty five being a heterozygote. With the use of antibiotics, the life span of a person afflicted with CF can be extended up to thirty years however, most die before the age of
Cystic Fibrosis1
Cystic Fibrosis1
Cystic Fibrosis1 Cystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that exerts its main effects on the digestive system and the lungs. This disease is the most common genetic disorder amongst Caucasians. Cystic fibrosis affects about one in 2,500 people, with one in twenty five being a heterozygote. With the use of antibiotics, the life span of a person afflicted with CF can be extended up to thirty years however, most die before the age of thirteen.1 Since so many people are affected
Artificial Sweeteners
Artificial Sweeteners
Artificial Sweeteners: Artificial sweeteners can taste wonderful to your taste buds, however can be very dangerous to a persons health. Almost everything people consume today has artificial sweeteners, such as Aspartame, Stevioside, Acesulfame, and Saccharin. -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=- * © Copyright DueNow.com Inc. * [Category]: Science [Paper Title]: Artificial Sweeteners [Text]: Artificial sweeteners can taste wonderful to your taste buds, howev
Biology - Genetics The Cystic Fibrosis Gene Introd
Biology - Genetics The Cystic Fibrosis Gene Introd
Biology - Genetics The Cystic Fibrosis Gene Introduction: Cystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that exerts its main effects on the digestive system and the lungs. This disease is the most common genetic disorder amongst Caucasians. Cystic fibrosis affects about one in 2,500 people, with one in twenty five being a heterozygote. With the use of antibiotics, the life span of a person afflicted with CF can be extended up to thirty years however, most die before the age of thir
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene Introduction Cystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that exerts its main effects on the digestive system and the lungs. This disease is the most common genetic disorder amongst Caucasians. Cystic fibrosis affects about one in 2,500 people, with one in twenty five being a heterozygote. With the use of antibiotics, the life span of a person afflicted with CF can be extended up to thirty years however, most die before the age of thirteen.1 Since so many
Artificial Sweeteners
Artificial Sweeteners
Artificial Sweeteners Artificial Sweeteners: Artificial sweeteners can taste wonderful to your taste buds, however can be very dangerous to a persons health. Almost everything people consume today has artificial sweeteners, such as Aspartame, Stevioside, Acesulfame, and Saccharin. -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=- [Category]: Science [Paper Title]: Artificial Sweeteners [Text]: Artificial sweeteners can taste wonderful to your taste buds, however can be
None Provided4
None Provided4
None Provided4 The tallest tree is the Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) approx 110 m The tallest Angiosperm is the Australian Eucalyptus regnans Water Uptake and transport (Fig. 32.1) = water is essential because: transport solute, cool the body, photosynthesis and Turgor pressure Osmosis- movement of H2) through a semi-impermeable membrane Osmotic potential ( o)-depend on dissolve solute: Hi concentration means more negative o. Isoosmotic-two solution with same o; Hypoosmotic- solution that has a
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene Biology - Genetics Introduction: Cystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that exerts its main effects on the digestive system and the lungs. This disease is the most common genetic disorder amongst Caucasians. Cystic fibrosis affects about one in 2,500 people, with one in twenty five being a heterozygote. With the use of antibiotics, the life span of a person afflicted with CF can be extended up to thirty years however, most die before the age of thir
Protein Digestion
Protein Digestion
Protein Digestion Proteins are made up of amino acids. There are 20 amino acids commonly found in biological materials. These can be divided into 2 groups, indispensable and dispensable. The indispensable amino acids cannot be produced by the body so are required in the diet. The dispensable amino acids can be produced by the body so are not required in the body. Indispensable amino acids Dispensable amino acids Isoleucine Alanine Leucine Arginine Lysine Aspartic acid Methione Cysteine Phenylala
|[|[pic] |
|[|[pic] |
|[|[pic] | |p|[pic] | |i|ALANINE | |c| | |]|Amino Acid Name: Alanine | | |Type: Nonpolar | |[|[pic] | |p|[pic] | |i|ARGININE | |c| | |]|Amino Acid Name: Arginine | | |Type: Ionic | |[|[pic] | |p|[pic] | |i|ASPARAGINE | |c| | |]|Amino Acid Name: Asparagine | | |Type: Polar | |[|[pic] | |p|[pic] | |i|ASPARTIC ACID | |c| | |]|Amino Acid Name: Aspartic Acid | | |Type: Ionic | |[|[pic] | |p|[pic] | |i|CYSTEINE | |c| | |]|Amino Acid Name: Cysteine | | |Type: Polar | [pic] [pic] GLUTAMIC ACID Amino Aci
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene Biology - Genetics The Cystic Fibrosis Gene Introduction: Cystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that exerts its main effects on the digestive system and the lungs. This disease is the most common genetic disorder amongst Caucasians. Cystic fibrosis affects about one in 2,500 people, with one in twenty five being a heterozygote. With the use of antibiotics, the life span of a person afflicted with CF can be extended up to thirty years however, most d
Biology - Genetics
Biology - Genetics
Biology - Genetics The Cystic Fibrosis Gene Introduction: Cystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that exerts its main effects on the digestive system and the lungs. This disease is the most common genetic disorder amongst Caucasians. Cystic fibrosis affects about one in 2,500 people, with one in twenty five being a heterozygote. With the use of antibiotics, the life span of a person afflicted with CF can be extended up to thirty years however, most die before the age of thir
Aspartame
Aspartame
Aspartame I have had friends who were having symptoms, had all kinds of tests and were taking all kinds of medications and when they stopped consuming Aspartame, the symptoms disappeared. Written by Lisa Zak Physician Credentialer University Pediatric Associates, Inc. Women Children's Hospital of Buffalo: In October of 2001, a friend's sister started getting very sick. She had stomach spasms and she was having a hard time getting around. Walking was a major chore. It took everything she had just
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene Introduction: Cystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that exerts its main effects on the digestive system and the lungs. This disease is the most common genetic disorder amongst Caucasians. Cystic fibrosis affects about one in 2,500 people, with one in twenty five being a heterozygote. With the use of antibiotics, the life span of a person afflicted with CF can be extended up to thirty years however, most die before the age of thirteen.1 Since so man
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene The Cystic Fibrosis Gene Introduction Cystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that exerts its main effects on the digestive system and the lungs. This disease is the most common genetic disorder amongst Caucasians. Cystic fibrosis affects about one in 2,500 people, with one in twenty five being a heterozygote. With the use of antibiotics, the life span of a person afflicted with CF can be extended up to thirty years however, most die before the age of
Should We Use NutraSweet and Other Artificial Swee
Should We Use NutraSweet and Other Artificial Swee
Should We Use NutraSweet and Other Artificial Sweeteners Should We Use NutraSweet & Other Artificial Sweeteners? Over the years there has been a huge "food fight" concerning the safety of NutraSweet and other artificial sweeteners. In the eyes of the consumer the safety of such products is questionable. In my opinion it isn\'t safe to use products like this. Though many scientists and other health professionals claim it to be safe I still don\'t trust these products. In 1981 the little blue pack
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene Introduction: Cystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that exerts its main effects on the digestive system and the lungs. This disease is the most common genetic disorder among Caucasians. Cystic fibrosis affects about one in 2,500 people, with one in twenty five being a heterozygote. With the use of antibiotics, the life span of a person afflicted with CF can be extended up to thirty years however, most die before the age of thirteen.1 Since so many
Protein domains
Protein domains
protein domains Describe the Nature, Structure, and Function of Domains in Proteins Domains Within a single subunit [polypeptide chain], contiguous portions of the polypeptide chain frequently fold into compact, local semi-independent units called domains. - Richardson, 1981 In the hierarchial organisation of proteins, domains are found at the highest level of tertiary structure. Since the term was first used by Wetlaufer (1973) a number of definitions exist reflecting author bias, however all o
Saccharin
Saccharin
Saccharin Saccharin is one of the most disputed sugar substitutes in the United States today. Since 1977, it has been regarded as potentially carcinogenic (�Saccharin�, 1999). The sweetness of saccharin compared to sugarcane is utterly amazing. When measured up to sugarcane, saccharin is 550 times as sweet in its pure state. Also, it is estimated to have a sweetening power of 375 times that of sugar (�Saccharin�, 2000)! This drug may be amazing, but some people say that it causes a dange
Bitter Sweet Aspartame A Diet
Bitter Sweet Aspartame A Diet
Bitter Sweet Aspartame A Diet Bitter Sweet Aspartame: A Diet Delusion I have always been a health and weight conscious individual. Because my thyroid does not work, I am automatically prone to weight gain. At the office, I have found my click amongst those sitting around the lunch table with their salads and and diet sodas, rather than leaving the office for a burger and fries. Inspite of my efforts to eat healthy diet and exercise every day, a couple of years ago I began to experience migranes,
Diabetes
Diabetes
Diabetes Diabetes Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus, is a chronic illness this means that it has no cure and the symptoms persist over a long period of time. This illness is a result of an imbalance of hormones, insulin, produced in the pancreas. Insulin plays an important role in how the body uses food. Insulin enables the cells in the bloodstream to absorb and use glucose for fuel. If the pancreas produces too little or no insulin or if the insulin doesn\'t work properly the person may become diabet
Bitter Sweet Aspartame A Diet
Bitter Sweet Aspartame A Diet
Bitter Sweet Aspartame A Diet Bitter Sweet Aspartame: A Diet Delusion I have always been a health and weight conscious individual. Because my thyroid does not work, I am automatically prone to weight gain. At the office, I have found my click amongst those sitting around the lunch table with their salads and and diet sodas, rather than leaving the office for a burger and fries. Inspite of my efforts to eat healthy diet and exercise every day, a couple of years ago I began to experience migranes,
nutrition
nutrition
nutrition Table of Contents Nutrition Therapy 1 Nutrition Consult 1 Meal planning 2 Body Weight Considerations 2 Psychosocial support. 3 Calorie Intake 4 Nutrient Composition of the Diet 4 Fat Intake 5 Carbohydrate Intake 6 Sucrose 6 Fructose 6 Vitamins and Minerals 7 Alcohol Intake 7 References 8 Nutrition Therapy The most fundamental component of the diabetes treatment plan for all patients with type II diabetes is medical nutrition therapy. Specific goals of nutrition therapy in type II diabe
How to Get a free term paper
How to Get a free term paper
How to Get a free term paper Form 10-K PEPSICO INC - PEP Filed: February 28, 2005 (period: December 25, 2004) Annual report which provides a comprehensive overview of the company for the past year Table of Contents PART I Item 1. Business 1 PART I Item 1. Business Item 2. Properties Item 3. Legal Proceedings Item 4. Submission of Matters to a Vote of Security Holders PART II Item 5. Market for Registrant s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of E Item 6. Selected Fina
Nutrition
Nutrition
nutrition Table of Contents Nutrition Therapy 1 Nutrition Consult 1 Meal planning 2 Body Weight Considerations 2 Psychosocial support. 3 Calorie Intake 4 Nutrient Composition of the Diet 4 Fat Intake 5 Carbohydrate Intake 6 Sucrose 6 Fructose 6 Vitamins and Minerals 7 Alcohol Intake 7 References 8 Nutrition Therapy The most fundamental component of the diabetes treatment plan for all patients with type II diabetes is medical nutrition therapy. Specific goals of nutrition therapy in type II diabe
Diabetes
Diabetes
Diabetes Diabetes Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus, is a chronic illness this means that it has no cure and the symptoms persist over a long period of time. This illness is a result of an imbalance of hormones, insulin, produced in the pancreas. Insulin plays an important role in how the body uses food. Insulin enables the cells in the bloodstream to absorb and use glucose for fuel. If the pancreas produces too little or no insulin or if the insulin doesn�t work properly the person may become diabe
Food Additives
Food Additives
Food Additives Food additives have been used for thousands of years. In prehistoric times, salt was probably used to preserve meat and fish. Our ancestors also found that large amounts of sugar helped preserve fruit and that cucumbers could be preserved in a vinegar solution. The ancient Egyptians used sulfites to stop bacterial growth and fermentation in wine. They also used extracts from beetles for food coloring. Vegetable dyes from juniper fruits or beech-root juice were popular colorings in
Food Additives
Food Additives
Food Additives Food Additives Food additives have been used for thousands of years. In prehistoric times, salt was probably used to preserve meat and fish. Our ancestors also found that large amounts of sugar helped preserve fruit and that cucumbers could be preserved in a vinegar solution. The ancient Egyptians used sulfites to stop bacterial growth and fermentation in wine. They also used extracts from beetles for food coloring. Vegetable dyes from juniper fruits or beech-root juice were popul
Artificial Sweetners
Artificial Sweetners
Artificial Sweetners Humans have always craved sweet foods. Nutritive sweeteners such as honey and sugar have been enjoyed since the beginning of time, and people were so active in the past that the caloric content of these products was a necessary addition to their diets. With the 20th Century came an era of sedentary lifestyles and convenience foods in the United States and throughout the civilized world, causing increased incidences of obesity and various chronic diseases. These changes in ou
Saccharin
Saccharin
Saccharin Saccharin is one of the most disputed sugar substitutes in the United States today. Since 1977, it has been regarded as potentially carcinogenic ("Saccharin", 1999). The sweetness of saccharin compared to sugarcane is utterly amazing. When measured up to sugarcane, saccharin is 550 times as sweet in its pure state. Also, it is estimated to have a sweetening power of 375 times that of sugar ("Saccharin", 2000)! This drug may be amazing, but some people say that it causes a dangerous dis
The cell
The cell
the cell Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus, is a chronic illness this means that it has no cure and the symptoms persist over a long period of time. This illness is a result of an imbalance of hormones, insulin, produced in the pancreas. Insulin plays an important role in how the body uses food. Insulin enables the cells in the bloodstream to absorb and use glucose for fuel. If the pancreas produces too little or no insulin or if the insulin doesnt work properly the person may become diabetic. Theref