Italian Campaign

Napoleon
Napoleon
Napoleon Napoleon was born on August 15, 1769 in Ajaccio, Corsica, and was given the name Napoleone Buonaperte. He was the second of eight children of Carlo and Letizia Buonaperte, both of the Corsican-Italian gentry. Before Napoleone, no Buonaparte had ever been a professional soldier. His father Carlo, was a lawyer who had fought for Corsican independence, but after the French occupied the island in 1768, he served as a prosecutor and a judge and entered the French aristocracy as a count. Thr
Socialism
Socialism
Socialism The term socialism is commonly used to refer both to an ideology--a comprehensive set of beliefs or ideas about the nature of human society and its future desirable state--and to a state of society based on that ideology. Socialists have always claimed to stand above all for the values of equality, social justice, cooperation, progress, and individual freedom and happiness, and they have generally sought to realize these values by the abolition of the private-enterprise economy (see CA
Tales Of The New Babylon
Tales Of The New Babylon
Tales of the New Babylon Zola?s La Débâcle, first planned in 1868, was the penultimate chapter in Les Rougon-Macquart. Warfare was something Zola had always meant to give full play in Les Rougon-Macquart, and his 1868 scheme had provided for a novel that will have the military world as its framework?; an episode in [Napoleon III?s] Italian campaign. But after the calamitous Franco-Prussian War, this installment acquired special significance. What had originally been envisaged as one tale among o
Fascism And Its Political Ideas
Fascism And Its Political Ideas
Fascism and its Political Ideas Fascism is a form of counter-revolutionary politics that first arose in the early part of the twentieth-century in Europe. It was a response to the rapid social upheaval, the devastation of World War I, and the Bolshevik Revolution. Fascism is a philosophy or a system of government the advocates or exercises a dictatorship of the extreme right, typically through the merging of state and business leadership, together with an ideology of aggressive nationalism. Cele
The Scarlet Letter - Guilt
The Scarlet Letter - Guilt
The Scarlet Letter - Guilt Guilt as Reparation for Sin in The Scarlet Letter The Scarlet Letter is a novel about a Puritan woman who has committed adultery and must pay for her sin by wearing a scarlet A on her bosom. The woman, Hester Prynne, must struggle through everyday life with the guilt of her sin. The novel is also about the suffering that is endured by not admitting to one?s wrongs. Reverend Mister Dimmesdale learns that secrecy only makes the guilt increase. Nathaniel Hawthorne is tryi
Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson The third president of the United States, a diplomat, statesman, architect, scientist, and philosopher, Thomas Jefferson is one of the most eminent figures in American history. No leader in the period of the American Enlightenment was as articulate, wise, or conscious of the implications and consequences of a free society as Thomas Jefferson. Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743, at Shadwell, a tobacco plantation in Virginia. His father, Peter Jefferson, was a self-made s
Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini Benito Mussolini was born on July 29, 1883 in Predappio. The son of a blacksmith he was largely self-educated. He became a schoolteacher and a socialist journalist in northern Italy. In 1910 he married Rachele Guidi who bore his five children. Mussolini was jailed in 1911 for his opposition to Italy?s war in Libya. Soon after his release in 1912 he became editor of the socialist newspaper in Milan, Avanti! . When WWI began in 1914 Mussolini advocated Italy?s entrance into the wa
Organized Crime
Organized Crime
Organized Crime Organized crime has always been occupied with a negative label. Perhaps this is due to the constantly changing environment in America as well as the social state of its homeland, Europe. Our society is convinced that the so-called Mafia is a family of pure criminals, pimps, and murderers. Whatever the opinion, there is no doubt that the Mafia played a big part in the history of America and the way Americans view crime today. The origins of the secret society known as the Mafia ar
D-Day
D-Day
D-Day D-Day, June 6 1944. Air-Power: Significant or not? A private who was aboard one of the first few gliders to reach Normandy expresses his feeling: I experienced an interesting psychological change in the few minutes before and immediately after take off. As I had climbed aboard and strapped myself into my seat I felt tense, strange and extremely nervous. It was as if I was in a fantasy dream world and thought that at any moment I would wake up from this unreality and find that I was back i
Entertainment And Education
Entertainment And Education
Entertainment and Education Both entertainment and education have been integrals parts of the human experience since the beginnings of time. Many scholars insist that the two institutions often serve jointly, with entertainers and entertainment serving as a main source of education. There is little argument, then, that in addition to generally appealing to the masses, entertainers have regularly fulfilled the role of a teacher to typically unsuspecting audiences. Entertainers have served as edu
Barbarossa
Barbarossa
Barbarossa When Germany invaded Russia in 1941, they did so neither near-sighted or as a ?back-handed? diplomatic ploy. While Russia remained a key objective to Hitler, it was also seen as a necessity for long-term victory and survival in Europe for Germany. ?Plan Yellow?, as developed by Field Marshal Erich von Manstein, called upon the pre-emptive strike against an imperialistic Russia, using speed and superior leadership as keys to victory. To always remember the axiom: ?History is written b
Operation Barbarossa In WWII
Operation Barbarossa In WWII
Operation Barbarossa in WWII When Operation Barbarossa is launched, the world will hold its breath! - Adolf Hitler On the night of June 22, 1941, more than 3 million German soldiers, 600 000 vehicles and 3350 tanks were amassed along a 2000km front stretching from the Baltic to the Black Sea. Their sites were all trained on Russia. This force was part of 'Operation Barbarossa', the eastern front of the greatest military machine ever assembled. This machine was Adolf Hitler's German army. For
The Defeat Of Napoleon In Russia
The Defeat Of Napoleon In Russia
The Defeat of Napoleon in Russia The Campaign of 1812 should have been a another crusade for Napoleon, but he now faced 2 new policies that he had never faced before, the severe Russian winter and the notorious scorched-earth policy. On June 23, 1812 Napoleon's Grande Armee, over 500,000 men strong, poured over the Russian border. An equal amount of Russian forces awaited them. The result of the campaign was a surprise. Two authors, General carl von Clausewitz and Brett James, show similarities
World War II
World War II
World War II In the early morning hours of September 1, 1939, the German armies marched into Poland. On September 3 the British and French surprised Hitler by declaring war on Germany, but they had no plans for rendering active assistance to the Poles. The Battle of Britain In the summer of 1940, Hitler dominated Europe from the North Cape to the Pyrenees. His one remaining active enemy?Britain, under a new prime minister, Winston Churchill?vowed to continue fighting. Whether it could was quest
International Relations
International Relations
The Constants of Dutch Foreign Policy Peace, Profits and Principles is the catchy alliterative title of a book on Dutch foreign policy by Joris Voorhoeve, one-time parlia?mentary leader of the VVD (1986-90). Under these three headings he sought to analyse the major traditions of this foreign policy, which he defined as 'maritime commercialism' 'neutralist abstentionism' and 'internationalist idealism'. Others have objected to the concept of traditions in this respect, even arguing that the Dutch
Baroque Art and Architecture (Final revision)
Baroque Art and Architecture (Final revision)
Baroque Art and Architecture (Final revision) HISTORY In Europe, whose impact on the world was increasing- the 17 th century was characterized by wides pread conflict and instability - called by som e historians the General Crisis- d ue to the Reformation Movement , and th e Counter-Reformation reaction. But the century is also characterized by the Scientific Revolution (end of Renaissance through late 18 th century: development in math, physics, astronomy, biology, anatomy, and chemistry )
Charlemagne
Charlemagne
Charlemagne History 101 - Fast Forward Fall 1996 PREPARED BY: SUBMITTED: September 30, 1996 Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, King of the Franks (742-814), was a strong leader who unified Western Europe through military power and the blessing of the Church. His belief in the need for education among the Frankish people was to bring about religious, political, and educational reforms that would change the history of Europe. Charlemagne was born in 742 at Aachen, the son of Pepin(or Pippin) the
Bleeding Ireland And Black America
Bleeding Ireland And Black America
Bleeding Ireland and Black America Fall Road is deserted. Only a few dirt-caked, barefoot, Irishmen can be seen shivering in the adjacent park. We walk past the Catholic neighborhoods knowing, at any moment, buildings might explode and automatic weapon fire could lacerate the air on every side of us. Belfast is charming, apart from the harsh reality of guerrilla warfare and terrorism being common occurrences. For the first time, throughout my three month tour of seventeen different European cou
Immigration and Discrimination in the 1920s
Immigration and Discrimination in the 1920s
Immigration and Discrimination: 1920s and 1930s Views on Immigration change with time. It seems that when people enjoy social and economic stability, they turn a blind eye towards immigration. When these factors change for the worse, however, people tend to change their views. Americans become racist and prejudice against immigrants and blame them for problems like economic downturns, increased crime, and unemployment. Americans living in the 1920s and 1930s struggled with attitudes of racism an