Racial Consciousness

Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud Many believe Freud to be the father of modern psychiatry and psychology and the only psychiatrist of any worth. He is certainly the most well known figure, perhaps because sex played such a prominent role in his system. There are other psychologists, however, whose theories demand respectful consideration. Erik Erickson, born Eric Homburger, whose theories while not as titillating as Freud's, are just as sound. This paper will compare the two great men and their systems. In additio
Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass Frederick Douglass was an emancipated slave who passed from one master to another until he finally found the satisfaction of being his own; he went through almost as many names as masters. His mother's family name, traceable at least as far back as 1701 (FD, 5) was Bailey, the name he bore until his flight to freedom in 1838. His father may or may not have been a white man named Anthony, but Douglass never firmly validated or rejected this possibility. During transit to New Yo
Marcus Garvey
Marcus Garvey
Marcus Garvey Historians familiar with Garvey's career generally regard him as the preeminent symbol of the insurgent wave of black nationalism that developed in the period following World War I. Although born in Jamaica, Garvey achieved his greatest success in the United States. He did so despite the criticism of many African-American leaders and the covert opposition of the United States Department of Justice and its Bureau of Investigation (forerunner of the FBI). As a young man, Garvey had p
Roots Of Judaism And Christianity
Roots Of Judaism And Christianity
Roots of Judaism and Christianity The Roots of Judaism and Christianity (i) Judaism: The Jews are a people who trace their descent from the biblical Israelites and who are united by the religion called Judaism. They are not a race; Jewish identity is a mixture of ethnic, national, and religious elements. An individual may become part of the Jewish people by conversion to Judaism; but a born Jew who rejects Judaism or adopts another religion does not entirely lose his Jewish identity. In biblical
Death Penalty
Death Penalty
Death Penalty The Death Penalty American Civil Liberties Union Briefing Paper Number 8 THE DEATH PENALTY Since our nation's founding, the government -- colonial, federal and state -- has punished murder and, until recent years, rape with the ultimate sanction: death. More than 13,000 people have been legally executed since colonial times, most of them in the early 20th Century. By the 1930s, as many as 150 people were executed each year. However, public outrage and legal challenges caused the pr
U.S Foreign Policy Toward Jewish Refugees During 1933-1939
U.S Foreign Policy Toward Jewish Refugees During 1933-1939
U.S Foreign Policy Toward Jewish Refugees During 1933-1939 PART I HISTORICAL REVIEW AND ANALYSIS In reviewing the events which gave rise to the U.S.'s foreign policy toward Jewish refugees, we must identify the relevant factors upon which such decisions were made. Factors including the U.S. government's policy mechanisms, it's bureaucracy and public opinion, coupled with the narrow domestic political mindedness of President Roosevelt, lead us to ask; Why was the American government apathetic to
Lipsets American Creed
Lipsets American Creed
Lipset's American Creed Liberty. Egalitarianism. Individualism. Populism. Laissez-faire. These five concepts embody the American creed as described by author Seymour Martin Lipset. Lipset feels that this American creed is representative of an ideology that all Americans share. Lipset's argument is on shaky ground, however, when scrutinized under the microscope of race. Racial relations in this country do much to undermine the validity of Lipset's argument, especially the concepts of egalitar
Affirmative Action: Public OPinion Vs. Policy
Affirmative Action: Public OPinion Vs. Policy
Affirmative Action: Public OPinion vs. Policy When Justin Ketcham, a white college student from the suburbs, thinks about affirmative action, he thinks about what happened when he sent out letters seeking scholarships so he could attend Stanford University after being accepted during his senior year of high school.The organizations that wrote back told him their money was reserved for women or minorities. To Americans like Ketcham, it's a matter of fairness. The average white male will claim tha
Jury Nullification And Its Effects On Black America
Jury Nullification And Its Effects On Black America
Jury Nullification and Its Effects on Black America It is obvious that significant improvements have been made in the way that the criminal justice system deals with Blacks during the history of the United States. Blacks have not always been afforded a right to trial, not to mention a fair one. Additionally, for years, Blacks were unable to serve on juries, clearly affecting the way both Blacks and whites were tried. Much of this improvement has been achieved through various court decisions, and
Lorraine Hansberry
Lorraine Hansberry
Lorraine Hansberry Lorraine Hansberry rejected the limitations of her race and gender and through her written works, became a social activist and expanded the role of a black woman in America. Lorraine Hansberry wrote many works that allowed her to explain her views. She also explored these ideas through playwrights. Lorraine Hansberry was said to be a spearhead of the future. She was a woman who refused to be confined by the categories of race and gender (Tripp 3). Lorraine Hansberry was born i
Beloved By Toni Morisson
Beloved By Toni Morisson
Beloved by Toni Morisson Beloved is actually a quintessentially American story. Its topic slavery however may not seem to be a traditional one in American literature. The novel written by Toni Morrison is an American survivor?s tale, which depicts the collective experience of slavery defined by the identity of the black community in America for years. The topic of slavery continues to be a vital part of the American consciousness today, in addition, slavery as an institution was a part of Americ
To Kill A Mockingbird - Overview
To Kill A Mockingbird - Overview
To Kill a Mockingbird - Overview Early Life Born in Monroeville, Alabama, on April 28, 1926, Nelle Harper Lee is the youngest of three children of Amassa Coleman Lee and Francis Lee. Before his death, Miss Lee's father and her older sister, Alice, practiced law together in Monroeville. When one considers the theme of honor that runs throughout Miss Lee's novel, it is perhaps significant to note that her family is related to Confederate General Robert E. Lee, a man especially noted for his devoti
Native Son: Reviews
Native Son: Reviews
Native Son: Reviews Native Son, by Richard Wright, was hailed by reviewers as an instant classic upon its release in 1940. The novel was an instant bestseller, having been included in the book-of-the-month-club. Due to its proto revolutionary themes it was the subject of many reviews. Two such reviewers are Clifton Fadiman and Malcolm Cowley. Clifton Fadiman, writer for The New Yorker declared that Native Son was the most powerful American novel since the Grapes of Wrath. He is positive that an
Ebonics
Ebonics
Ebonics INTRODUCTION This is an English exam paper prepared for the EVU2-EDB course at Niuernermik Ilinniarfik, Nuuk. The main topic of this paper is the USA, and I have chosen to concentrate on a fairly new issue, the language know as Ebonics. There have always been changes in the English language. This is how the language came about and evolved from standard British English to American English. During the last few years, as the world has become more sensitive to the rights of minorities, wome
Slavery - Slavery And Human Decency
Slavery - Slavery And Human Decency
Slavery - Slavery and Human Decency Discrimination is very old in its origins. From the earliest periods of human existence, groups developed prejudices toward others and then discriminated against those whom they regarded as different or inferior. Many attempts were taken to maintain or increase power, prestige, or even wealth; groups found it easy to invent or accept the idea that others were somehow inferior to them and thus not deserving of equal treatment. Among the many differences that co
Transcendentalism
Transcendentalism
Transcendentalism Transcendentalism was a movement in philosophy, literature, and religion that emerged and was popular in the nineteenth century New England because of a need to redefine man and his place in the world in response to a new and changing society. The industrial revolution, universities, westward expansion, urbanization and immigration all made the life in a city like Boston full of novelty and turbulence. Transcendentalism was a reaction to an impoverishment of religion and mechan
Unions
Unions
Unions Michael Paul 099 66 3949 History 316z Trade unionism, industrial unionism, and socialism were the main forms of organized labor in the late nineteenth century early twentieth century, yet rarely did these shifting currents flow in complementary ways that might appeal to the vast majority of struggling workers. The three most important formal organizations were the American Federation of Labor (AFL), the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) and the Socialist Party of America. All three of
African Americans
African Americans
African Americans Black Americans Black Americans are those persons in the United States who trace their ancestry to members of the Negroid race in Africa. They have at various times in United States history been referred to as African, coloured, Negro, Afro-American, and African-American, as well as black. The black population of the United States has grown from three-quarters of a million in 1790 to nearly 30 million in 1990. As a percentage of the total population, blacks declined from 19.3 i
GANGS
GANGS
GANGS OVERVIEW OF GANGS Originally the word gang had no negative connotation. In Old English, gang simply referred to a number of people who went around together-a group. Today a gang can be defined in four basic ways: ? an organized group with a leader ? a unified group that usually remains together during peaceful times as well as times of conflict ? a group whose members show unity through clothing, language ? a group whose activities are criminal or threatening to the larger society. Gang
First And Second Reconstructions
First And Second Reconstructions
First and Second Reconstructions The First and Second Reconstructions held out the great promise of rectifying racial injustices in America. The First Reconstruction, emerging out of the chaos of the Civil War had as its goals equality for Blacks in voting, politics, and use of public facilities. The Second Reconstruction emerging out of the booming economy of the 1950's, had as its goals, integration, the end of Jim Crow and the more amorphous goal of making America a biracial democracy where,
Beloved by Toni Morrison
Beloved by Toni Morrison
Beloved by Toni Morrison Beloved is actually a quintessentially American story. Its topic slavery however may not seem to be a traditional one in American literature. The novel written by Toni Morrison is an American survivorís tale, which depicts the collective experience of slavery defined by the identity of the black community in America for years. The topic of slavery continues to be a vital part of the American consciousness today, in addition, slavery as an institution was a part of Americ