Text Books

Herbert George Wells
Herbert George Wells
Herbert George Wells Herbert George Wells was born in 1866 in Bromley, Kent, a few miles from London, the son of a house-maid and gardener. Wells died in 1946, a wealthy and famous author, having seen science fiction become a recognized literary form and having seen the world realize some of science fictions fondest dreams and worst fears. Wells mother attempted to find him a safe occupation as a draper or chemist. Wells had a quick mind and a good memory that enabled him to pass subjects by e
Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford Rutherford was born on August 30, 1871, in Nelson, New Zealand. He was educated at the University of New Zealand and the University of Cambridge. He was a professor of physics at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec from 1989 to 1907. He was also professor at the University of Manchester in England. After 1919 he was professor of experimental physics and director of the Cavendish Lab at the University of Cambridge moreover held a professorship, after 1920, at the Royal Instit
Hinduism
Hinduism
Hinduism The term Hinduism refers to the civilization of the Hindus (originally, the inhabitants of the land of the Indus River).Introduced in about 1830 by British writers, it properly denotes the Indian civilization of approximately the last 2,000 years, which evolved from Vedism the religion of the Indo- European peoples who settled in India in the last centuries of the 2nd millennium BC. The spectrum that ranges from the level of popular Hindu belief to that of elaborate ritual technique an
Charlemagne
Charlemagne
Charlemagne History 101 - Fast Forward Fall 1996 PREPARED BY: SUBMITTED: September 30, 1996 Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, King of the Franks (742-814), was a strong leader who unified Western Europe through military power and the blessing of the Church. His belief in the need for education among the Frankish people was to bring about religious, political, and educational reforms that would change the history of Europe. Charlemagne was born in 742 at Aachen, the son of Pepin(or Pippin) the
Womens Rights Movement 1848-1998
Womens Rights Movement 1848-1998
Women's Rights Movement 1848-1998 Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it's the only thing that ever has. That was Margaret Mead's conclusion after a lifetime of observing very diverse cultures around the world. Her insight has been borne out time and again throughout the development of this country of ours. Being allowed to live life in an atmosphere of religious freedom, having a voice in the government you support with your taxes, li
Censorship Of Art
Censorship Of Art
Censorship of Art Things are heating up in America. People are protesting outside of the movie theaters, concerts, and book and record stores of this great nation everywhere. What is all the fuss about? Censorship, Government officials and raving mad protesters alike have been trying to stop the expressive creativity in everything from Marilyn Manson to Mark Twain. One of the biggest shake-ups happened in museums all over the world recently that would have made Michelangelo and DiVinchi?s hair s
Shakespeare Finds Love On A Midsummer Night
Shakespeare Finds Love On A Midsummer Night
Shakespeare Finds Love on a Midsummer Night The forest outside Athens is filled with changelings, magic, and ancient myth: in other words, the stage is set. The night is silent and still as four mortals alternately hate and love, monarchs of the faerie world clash wills, and the mischief of one irrepressible woodland sprite weaves a spell over all. The breath of the darkness is lit with the glow of foxfire; hearts are broken and mended within the span of short hours. In the bower of the Faerie Q
Life After Death
Life After Death
Life After Death Life After Death As the irritating, yet monotonous beeps of the life-monitor in the emergency room began to slowly die away, George struggled to hang on. It's not my time yet, he thought. Please, give me just one more day? The beeps soon became increasingly far in between, while the doctors frantically bustled on in a futile attempt to stabilize the dying man like a bunch of panicking bees trying to save their doomed hive from a pouring rain. The world turned hazy, then complete
Hinduism
Hinduism
Hinduism Hinduism Introduction Hinduism is a religion that originated in India and is still practiced by most of the Natives as well as the people who have migrated from India to other parts of the world. Statistically there are over seven hundred million Hindus, mainly in Bharat, India and Nepal. Eighty five percent of the population in India is Hindu. The word Hindu comes from an ancient Sanskrit term meaning dwellers by the Indus River, referring to the location of India's earliest know civ
Gothic Age
Gothic Age
Gothic Age Gothic For nearly four hundred years Gothic style dominated the architecture of Western Europe. It originated in northern France in the twelfth century, and spread rapidly across England and the Continent, invading the old Viking empire of Scandinavia. It confronted the Byzantine provinces of Central Europe and even made appearances in the near East and the Americas. Gothic architects designed town halls, royal palaces, courthouses, and hospitals. They fortified cities and castles to
Kahlil Gibran
Kahlil Gibran
Kahlil Gibran Kahlil Gibran Information on the Author Kahlil Gibran (1883-1931), a poet, philosopher, and an artist was born in Lebanon, a land which has produced many prophets. The millions of Arabic speaking people, familiar with his writing consider him a genius of his age. However, his fame and influence was not limited to the Near East only, but far beyond these borders. His poetry has been translated into more than twenty languages. His drawings and paintings have been exhibited in the gre
The Theory Of Evolution
The Theory Of Evolution
The Theory of Evolution The theory of evolution, as set forth by Charles Darwin in 1859, stated that all plant and animal life evolved over long periods of time from simple to more complicated forms through mutation and adaptation. He also taught that only the fittest of each species would survive. He further postulated that the first living cell evolved in a warm warm little pond and that it took billions of years for the present diversity of living things to evolve. At the time, it was thou
Gun Control Is Needed
Gun Control Is Needed
Gun Control Is Needed Regulation of guns is a necessary action that needs to be taken in order to save lives. A good definition of gun control is needed to understand the sides and issues. Gun control is an effort to stop the rise in violent crime by strengthening laws on the ownership of firearms. Persons in the group against gun control believe that gun control is wrong, and that it is a violation of constitutional rights. Those in favor of gun control believe that gun control is good, that th
The Context Of The Second Amendment
The Context Of The Second Amendment
The Context of The Second Amendment The interpretation of the Second Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America has been a topic of controversy since its acceptance over two-hundred years ago. This controversy stems from the fact that the amendment was written for reasons for the most part that do not have any relevance today. One side argues the amendment void, and the other takes it out of historical context so it portrays the meaning they want. To understand what the second
Governements Bureaucratic Half-Witted Laws
Governements Bureaucratic Half-Witted Laws
Governement's Bureaucratic Half-Witted Laws Todays big government is a typical display of bureaucracy in its most creative state. Due to the enormous bureaucracy within todays state governments, many laws have been passed through legislation that really didn't need to be passed. These laws are a display of the way government likes to show power over the people using legal suppression. Governments have created laws governing almost anything that the people do as an act of blatant suppression, eve
Margaret Atwood
Margaret Atwood
Margaret Atwood Fight for the Female Margaret Atwood, a contemporary Canadian author, has been classified as one of this century?s' most feminist, and near dystopian novelists. Her works illustrate how feminism has caused the downfall of contemporary society. Margaret Atwood, a prominent feminist author of the twentieth century, is driven by her sense of social reform and her realistic view of a disturbed society to produce works such as The Handmaids Tale. Atwood was born on November 18, 1943 i
Old Man And The Sea
Old Man And The Sea
Old Man And The Sea Hemingway's Old Man And The Sea Old Man and the Sea This part of the story has to do with Santiago against nature and the sea. In this part of the story, he goes out and fights nature in the form of terrible forces and dangerous creatures, among them, a marlin, sharks and hunger. He starts the story in a small skiff and moves out in a journey to capture a fish after a long losing streak of eighty-four days. Unfortunately his friend must desert him due to this problem and a gr
The Short Happy Life Of Francis Macomber
The Short Happy Life Of Francis Macomber
The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber Ernest Hemingway was one of a group of artists in the inter-war period of the early twentieth century who was left mentally (and for Hemingway also physically) scarred by the total devastation he witnessed during and after the Great War. Gertrude Stein labeled Hemingway and his peers a Lost Generation, a famous phrase that only partially describes the detachment, confusion, instability, and distrust that these twenty- and thirty-somethings felt toward m
Damsels In Address
Damsels In Address
Damsels in address Damsels in Address It is clearly evident that many fairy tales of childhood tend to shape the reader. Certain moral codes and ideals are tightly woven into the text of many fairy tales, promoting or denoting a character?s actions. In the Grimm?s fairy tales Cinderella, Brier Rose, and Rapunzel, the heroines of these tales exhibit strong behavioral codes, thus providing opportunity for the young female reader to relate to the damsel, or to model herself to behave in a similar f
Chaucer
Chaucer
Chaucer The Canterbury Tales By far Chaucer's most popular work, although he might have preferred to have been remembered by Troilus and Criseyde, the Canterbury Tales was unfinished at his death. No less than fifty-six surviving manuscripts contain, or once contained, the full text. More than twenty others contain some parts or an individual tale. The work begins with a General Prologue in which the narrator arrives at the Tabard Inn in Southwark, and meets other pilgrims there, whom he describ
Authority Vs Individuality
Authority Vs Individuality
Authority vs Individuality Authority is defined as a person or group of people who control the society and make major decisions affecting the society. Individual is a person who has no particular influence on the society and neither do his decisions. The term Authority may be applied to any type of people who hold some sort of influence or power on the society such as The Police; Courts from local courts to supreme courts and of course the ruling party of the government. The individual may be a
The Sin Of Nadab & Abihu
The Sin Of Nadab & Abihu
The Sin of Nadab & Abihu Verse: (Lev. 10:1) And Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron took either of them his censer, and put fire therin, and put incense thereon, and offered strange fire before the Lord, which he commanded them not. (King James) The Sin of Nadab & Abihu: An Exegesis There is no clear consensus as to what sin Nadab and Abihu committed as detailed in verse 10:1 of the book Leviticus, in the Hebrew bible. Some commentators like to take into consideration material previously mentione
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism Buddhism, one of the major religions of the world, was founded by Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, who lived in northern India from 560 to 480 B.C. The time of the Buddha was one of social and religious change, marked by the further advance of Aryan civilization into the Ganges Plain, the development of trade and cities, the breakdown of old tribal structures, and the rise of a whole spectrum of new religious movements that responded to the demands of the times (Conze 10). These movemen
Religions Spread Through Conquest
Religions Spread Through Conquest
Religions Spread Through Conquest When studying history, both in a professional and academic sense, we try to make connections between civilizations and time periods. Historians have attempted to discover universal conezts of human nature, a bond that forms from continent to continent, human being to human being. Is there a conezt quality that all peoples posses, and is reflected in all civilizations? Indeed, it is extremely difficult to make generalizations about centuries of modern history. To
Their Eyes Were Watching God
Their Eyes Were Watching God
Their Eyes Were Watching God Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God Research Paper I am Me, My Eyes Toward God Mark Evans Zora Neale Hurston an early twentieth century Afro-American feminist author, was raised in a predominately black community which gave her an unique perspective on race relations, evident in her novel, Their Eyes Were Watching God. Hurston drew on her on experiences as a feminist Afro-American female to create a story about the magical transformation of Janie, f
The Color Purple
The Color Purple
The Color Purple The main theme this essay will be focusing on is the distinction between the real outcome of economic achievement as described in The Color Purple by the lynching of Celie's father, and its alternative economic view presented at the end of the novel depicting Celie's happiness and entrepreneurial success. We will attempt the task at hand by relating the novel to two Models (Historical and Empirical Data, Manners and Customs) of representation in the real and alternative
Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee
Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee
Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee Dee Brown's Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee is a fully documented account of the annihilation of the American Indian in the late 1800s ending at the Battle of Wounded Knee. Brown brings to light a story of torture and atrocity not well known in American history. The fashion in which the American Indian was exterminated is best summed up in the words of Standing Bear of the Poncas, When people want to slaughter cattle they drive them along until they get them to a cor
The Beak Of The Finch
The Beak Of The Finch
The Beak of the Finch The Bogus Logic of The Beak People who have served in the Armed Forces may be familiar with the expression, If you can't dazzle then with your brilliance, baffle them with your baloney. The Beak of the Finch uses such laughable logic, it is remarkable that anyone would believe it. The book does such a terrible job of presenting a case for evolution and history, that the only logical conclusion is that the book's true intent is to disprove it. Jonathan Weiner, The Beak of
Sweetness And Power
Sweetness And Power
Sweetness and Power Why would anyone feel the need to write an entire book on such a mundane topic such as sugar? Look around at some food products you might have and you will realize that many if not all of them contain sugar in some form or another. For example, a can of soda, which most people drink everyday, contains (depending on the brand) approximately 40 grams of sugars. Look further and you might find that even things such as cheese or chips or soup contain several grams of sugar in the
Semiotics And Intertextuality
Semiotics And Intertextuality
Semiotics and Intertextuality Part I Intertextuality The semiotic notion of intertextuality is associated primarily with poststructuralist theorists. Each media text exists in relation to others. In fact, texts owe more to other texts than to their own makers. Texts are framed by others in many ways. Most obvious are formal frames: a television programme, for instance, may be part of a series and part of a genre (soap or sitcom). Our understanding of any individual text relates to such framings.
Rude Strength
Rude Strength
Rude Strength [T]he bleding continued a while til it migt be sene with avisement. And this was so plenteous to my sight that methowte, if it had be so in kind and in substance for that tyme, it should have made the bed al on blode and a passid over aboute.1 This passage, which I affectionately refer to as the bloodbath scene, is from Julian of Norwich's description of Christ's bleeding during the Crucifixion as it was revealed to her in the Fourth Showing. While none of her renderings in A Rev
The Scarlet Letter - Characterization
The Scarlet Letter - Characterization
The Scarlet Letter - Characterization Nathaniel Hawthorne was born in Salem, Massachusetts in 1804. After his graduation from Bowdoin College in Maine, he quickly became a well-known author of literary tales concerning early American life. Between 1825 and 1850, he developed his talent by writing short fiction, and he gained international fame for his fictional novel The Scarlet Letter in 1850 (Clendenning 118). Rufus Wilmot Griswold stated, The frivolous costume and brisk action of the story of
Our Hearts Fell To The Ground
Our Hearts Fell To The Ground
Our hearts fell to the ground Colin Calloway has done a masterful job of selecting and presenting an array of speeches, letters, documents, and drawings that tell compelling stories about the Plain Indians in the 1800's. His introduction alone has just the right level of information and links basic themes and events to the documents presented in the text. In short, a model of how an introduction should be done. Colin Calloway's intentions were to focus on the humanistic study of the Plain Indian
A Connecticut Yankee In King Arthurs Court
A Connecticut Yankee In King Arthurs Court
A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court Knowledge and Technology in A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur?s Court A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur?s Court is a complicated novel that fundamentally deals with the concept of the human experience. Hank Morgan is a nineteenth century mechanic who is transported back thirteen centuries to medieval Britain, during the time of King Arthur. After his initial shock, he becomes determined to civilize Camelot by introducing modern industrial technolog
Dealers Of Lighting
Dealers Of Lighting
Dealers of Lighting Dealers of Lightning the legendary story of Xerox?s Palo Alto Research Center (PARC). Written by Los Angeles Times corespondent, Michael Hiltzik. The Book brings together moments behind the research labs trailblazing technological achievements. Hiltzik also gives you vast amounts of insight and information about such people as Jack Goldman, Xerox chief scientists who convinced the corporation to sink tens of millions of dollars into PARC, while acknowledging that it may never
Divine Comedy
Divine Comedy
Divine Comedy Among the various tools Dante Alighieri employs in the Commedia, his grand imaginative interpretation of life after death, scenes involving figures and beasts from classical mythology provide the reader with allegories and exempla effectively linking universal human themes with Christian thought and ideology. Among these, the figure of the Siren, found in Canto 19 of the Purgatorio, exists as a particularly sinister and moribund image. Visiting Dante in a dream upon the heights of
Damsels In Address
Damsels In Address
Damsels In Address Damsels in Address It is clearly evident that many fairy tales of childhood tend to shape the reader. Certain moral codes and ideals are tightly woven into the text of many fairy tales, promoting or denoting a character?s actions. In the Grimm?s fairy tales Cinderella, Brier Rose, and Rapunzel, the heroines of these tales exhibit strong behavioral codes, thus providing opportunity for the young female reader to relate to the damsel, or to model herself to behave in a similar f
Shame
Shame
Shame Criticism of Shame Shame, published in 1983, a year before his most famous work The Satanic Verses, presents a fabulistic account in a country that disturbingly represents Pakistan. Critically, Shame is compared to Midnight?s Children because the of its resemblances in themes and style. The idea for Shame, reported interviewer Ronal Hayman in Books and Bookmen, grew out of Rushdie?s interest in the Pakistani concept of sharam, a word that denotes a hybrid of embarrassment, discomfiture, de
City Of Ladies
City Of Ladies
City of ladies Christine de Pizan An unlikely candidate to dispute the unfair, misogynistic treatment of women by men and society, Christine de Pizan successfully challenged the accepted negative views that were being expressed about women by the all-male literary world of her era. Part of Christine?s uniqueness stems from the time in which she lived, the middle to late 1300?s. The lack of a positive female role model to pattern herself after made Christine a true visionary in the fight for the
Candide - Voltaires Writing Style
Candide - Voltaires Writing Style
Candide - Voltaire's Writing Style Candide - Voltaire's Writing Style In Candide, Voltaire uses many writing techniques which can also be found in the works of Cervantes, Alighieri, Rabelais and Moliere. The use of the various styles and conventions shows that, despite the passage of centuries and the language differences, certain writing techniques will always be effective. One common literary technique is the author's use of one or more of his characters as his 'voice' to speak out the authors
Antoine Lavoisier
Antoine Lavoisier
Antoine Lavoisier Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (lah vwah ZYAY) was one of the best-known French scientists and was an important government official. His theories of combustion, his development of a way to classify the elements and the first modern textbook of chemistry led to his being known as the father of modern chemistry. He contributed to much of the research in the field of chemistry. He is quoted for saying, Nothing is lost, nothing is created, everything is tr
Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson The third president of the United States, a diplomat, statesman, architect, scientist, and philosopher, Thomas Jefferson is one of the most eminent figures in American history. No leader in the period of the American Enlightenment was as articulate, wise, or conscious of the implications and consequences of a free society as Thomas Jefferson. Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743, at Shadwell, a tobacco plantation in Virginia. His father, Peter Jefferson, was a self-made s
Tim Paterson
Tim Paterson
Tim Paterson Tim Paterson Tim Paterson, also known as the Father of Dos is the computer programmer who created the world's most widely used computer program: DOS. Creating DOS at age 24, Paterson claims, it is an accomplishment that probably can't be repeated by anyone ever. After Paterson graduated from University of Washington in Seattle with a bachelors of science degree, he tried going to graduate school but lost interest. I thought they were too oriented towards theory and not what I n
The Time Machine
The Time Machine
The Time Machine Herbert George Wells was born in 1866 in Bromley, Kent, a few miles from London, the son of a house-maid and gardener. Wells died in 1946, a wealthy and famous author, having seen science fiction become a recognized literary form and having seen the world realize some of science fiction's fondest dreams and worst fears. Wells mother attempted to find him a safe occupation as a draper or chemist. Wells had a quick mind and a good memory that enabled him to pass subjects by exami
Maurice Sendak
Maurice Sendak
Maurice Sendak Maurice Sendak may be the best-known children's author / illustrator in the world today. His artwork has become somewhat of an American icon; some even became the basis of an advertising campaign for Bell Atlantic. This extremely gifted genius was actually cultivating within Sendak since his childhood, and many different memories from his youth influenced the masterpieces he has created. Born in Brooklyn on June 10th (coincidently, my birthday) 1928, Sendak has illustrated over 70
King Solomon
King Solomon
King Solomon King Solomon ruled all of Israel in an outstanding way from 977 to 937 BCE (12). Despite his wealth and power, Solomon is known to history for his wisdom and as the builder of the Temple of Jerusalem. He has been credited with authoring all or parts of three books of the Bible (Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Solomon). King Solomon was the ruler of ancient Israel who reigned from 961-922 BC (8). He is the son of David and Bathsheba. Solomon succeeded his father as king and his t
Juan Gris
Juan Gris
Juan Gris Juan Gris was born in 1887. He was a Spanish born French painter who went to the cubist school. Originally his name was Jose Vittoriano Gonzalez, he was born in Madrid and educated there. He left Madrid in 1906 and went to Paris, making the acquaintance of Spanish artist Pablo Picasso and of the French painter Georges Braque. Gris's first cubist paintings, generally more calculated than those of Picasso and Braque, appeared in 1912. He spent the next summer in C?et, France, with Picass
John Coltrane
John Coltrane
John Coltrane I've got to keep experimenting. I feel that I'm just beginning. I have part of what I'm looking for in my grasp, but not all. John Coltrane This phrase, from the liner notes of My Favorite Things clearly defines Coltrane's life and his search for the incorporation of his spirituality with his music. John Coltrane was not only an essential contributor to jazz, but also music itself. John Coltrane died thirty-two years ago, on July 17, 1967, at the age of forty. In the years since
Francios Rabelias
Francios Rabelias
Francios Rabelias In Italy, early 1300s, a cultural movement began. This period of time is known as the Renaissance, an age of reborn interest in the arts. During this time artist emerged with paintings that recognized daily life, in contrast with paintings of holy and importain people just a few years earlier. Artist began to paint in three dimensions, writers began write satires, and they started blending their opinions into their stories. They became concerned with human welfare, humanism. Hu
Cynthia Ozick
Cynthia Ozick
Cynthia Ozick Cynthia Ozick was an American short story writer, novelist, essayist, poet, and translator. She considers herself an American Jewish writer. Cynthia Ozick was a writer of fiction and non-fiction, but did not bloom her career until she was 32 years old. Her literary hero was Henry James. After Cynthia Ozick finished graduate school, she would read for hours. She tried to read all the books that she never read before. She tried to learn everything she could from the books that she re