Universal Law

Human Rights
Human Rights
Human Rights On December tenth 1948 in the Palis de Chaillot in Paris, the United Nation's General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The document is made up of thirty articles which deal with a series of basic human rights and duties. It follows the premise that the declaration is a common standard of achievement for all peoples and nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teach
William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare William Shakespeare was a great English playwright, dramatist and poet who lived during the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Shakespeare is considered to be the greatest playwright of all time. No other writer's plays have been produced or read as much as his. Shakespeare was born to a middle class family. His father, John, was a Stratford businessman. He was a glove maker who owned a leather shop. John Shakespeare was a well known and respected man in the town
William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare William Shakespeare was a great English playwright, dramatist and poet who lived during the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Shakespeare is considered to be the greatest playwright of all time. No other writer's plays have been produced so many times or read so widely in so many countries as his. Shakespeare was born to middle class parents. His father, John, was a Stratford businessman. He was a glove maker who owned a leather shop. John Shakespeare was a well
Restore The Emperor Expel The Barbarians: The Causes Of The Showa Rest
Restore The Emperor Expel The Barbarians: The Causes Of The Showa Rest
Restore the Emperor Expel the Barbarians: The Causes of the Showa Restoration Sonno joi, Restore the Emperor and expel the Barbarians, was the battle cry that ushered in the Showa Restoration in Japan during the 1930's.Footnote1 The Showa Restoration was a combination of Japanese nationalism, Japanese expansionism, and Japanese militarism all carried out in the name of the Showa Emperor, Hirohito. Unlike the Meiji Restoration, the Showa Restoration was not a resurrection of the Emperor's po
The Role Of The Emperor In Meiji Japan
The Role Of The Emperor In Meiji Japan
The Role of The Emperor in Meiji Japan Japan is a society whose culture is steeped in the traditions and symbols of the past: Mt. Fuji, the tea ceremony, and the sacred objects of nature revered in Shintoism. Two of the most important traditions and symbols in Japan; the Emperor and Confucianism have endured through Shogunates, restorations of imperial rule, and up to present day. The leaders of the Meiji Restoration used these traditions to gain control over Japan and further their goals of mo
Restore The Emperor Expel The Barbarians: The Causes Of The Showa Rest
Restore The Emperor Expel The Barbarians: The Causes Of The Showa Rest
Restore the Emperor Expel the Barbarians: The Causes of the Showa Restoration Sonno joi, Restore the Emperor and expel the Barbarians, was the battle cry that ushered in the Showa Restoration in Japan during the 1930's.Footnote1 The Showa Restoration was a combination of Japanese nationalism, Japanese expansionism, and Japanese militarism all carried out in the name of the Showa Emperor, Hirohito. Unlike the Meiji Restoration, the Showa Restoration was not a resurrection of the Emperor's powe
Kantian Philosophy Of Morality
Kantian Philosophy Of Morality
Kantian Philosophy of Morality Kantian philosophy outlines the Universal Law Formation of the Categorical Imperative as a method for determining morality of actions. This formula is a two part test. First, one creates a maxim and considers whether the maxim could be a universal law for all rational beings. Second, one determines whether rational beings would will it to be a universal law. Once it is clear that the maxim passes both prongs of the test, there are no exceptions. As a paramedic face
Napoleon
Napoleon
Napoleon Napoleon was born on August 15, 1769 in Ajaccio, Corsica, and was given the name Napoleone Buonaperte. He was the second of eight children of Carlo and Letizia Buonaperte, both of the Corsican-Italian gentry. Before Napoleone, no Buonaparte had ever been a professional soldier. His father Carlo, was a lawyer who had fought for Corsican independence, but after the French occupied the island in 1768, he served as a prosecutor and a judge and entered the French aristocracy as a count. Thr
Genocide
Genocide
Genocide From the time humans existed, hatred seemed to be the dominant trait that possessed the souls of men. It was inevitable emotions could provoke people to engage in acts without thinking; but it was the acts that were premeditated which were classified as evil and brutal. A. M. Rosenthal, the author of No News From Auschwitz, described a single moment in history where these kinds of acts were invoked. This appalling endeavor is known as genocide which is the deliberate destruction of a n
Multiculturalism In Canada
Multiculturalism In Canada
Multiculturalism in Canada Canada has long been called The Mosaic, due to the fact that it is made up of a varied mix of races, cultures and ethnicities. As more and more immigrants come to Canada searching for a better life, the population naturally becomes more diverse. This has, in turn, spun a great debate over multiculturalism. Some of the issues under fire are the political state's policies concerning multiculturalism, the attitudes of Canadians around these policies, immigration, the gl
Human Rights
Human Rights
Human Rights Human rights are universal, indivisible and interdependent. Human rights are what make us human. When we speak of the right to life, or development, or to dissent and diversity, we are speaking of tolerance. Tolerance will ensure all freedoms. Without it, we can be certain of none. The raging ethnic cleansing in Kosovo is an example of intolerance. The Serbians will not tolerate the Albanians at any cost. They are forcing them from their homes, turning the streets into killing field
Environmental Activism
Environmental Activism
Environmental Activism 1. The large mainstream environmentalism groups started to compromise too much with regulatory agencies and bureaus, starting with the Glen Canyon Dam project. This began an estrangement with the mainstreams that culminated in the rise of more militant groups like Earth First! Glen Canyon represented what was fundamentally wrong with the country's conservation policies: arrogant government officials motivated by a quasireligious zeal to industrialize the natural world, and
Womens Rights In 3rd World Counrties
Womens Rights In 3rd World Counrties
Women's Rights in 3rd World Counrties Women?s Rights in 3rd World Countries There was a young woman who left her home in Mycrorayan in Kabul, Afghanistan for Peshawar after the January 1994 fighting and told Amnesty International of the following situation. One day when my father was walking past a building complex he heard screams of women coming from an apartment block which had just been captured by forces of General Dostum. He was told by the people that Dostum's guards had entered the bloc
Napster Debate
Napster Debate
Napster Debate 1. Background The Napster software (http://www.napster.com), launched early in 1999, allows internet users to share and download MP3 files directly from any computer connected to the Napster network. The software is used by downloading a client program from the Napster site and then connecting to the network through this software, which allows sharing (uploading and downloading) of MP3 files between all users connected to the network. While Napster does not condone copyright infri
Impeachment Of The President Of The USA
Impeachment Of The President Of The USA
Impeachment of the President of the USA In the hallways of the Smithsonian, two moralists are debating the impeachment of the President of the United States of America, Mr. William Jefferson Clinton. One is clearly Anti-Clinton (AC) the other, a Democrat (DC), is not so much for him as he is for the rational and pragmatic application of moral principles. AC (expectedly): The President should be impeached. DC (no less expectedly) ; But, surely, even you are not trying to imply that he has comm
Roots Of Judaism And Christianity
Roots Of Judaism And Christianity
Roots of Judaism and Christianity The Roots of Judaism and Christianity (i) Judaism: The Jews are a people who trace their descent from the biblical Israelites and who are united by the religion called Judaism. They are not a race; Jewish identity is a mixture of ethnic, national, and religious elements. An individual may become part of the Jewish people by conversion to Judaism; but a born Jew who rejects Judaism or adopts another religion does not entirely lose his Jewish identity. In biblical
Life After Death
Life After Death
Life After Death Life After Death As the irritating, yet monotonous beeps of the life-monitor in the emergency room began to slowly die away, George struggled to hang on. It's not my time yet, he thought. Please, give me just one more day? The beeps soon became increasingly far in between, while the doctors frantically bustled on in a futile attempt to stabilize the dying man like a bunch of panicking bees trying to save their doomed hive from a pouring rain. The world turned hazy, then complete
Religion In Public Schools
Religion In Public Schools
Religion in Public Schools Religion in Public Schools Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof......? according to the First Amendment of the Constitution. This idea of freedom of religion has been stated very clearly, but it also raises questions about the meaning of religious freedom . Should religious expression be excluded from all government activities? Has separation of church and state been violated by the U.S. Treasury? F
Liberalism And Freedom
Liberalism And Freedom
Liberalism and Freedom Liberalism is a force that has produced change from the birth of this nation to the politics of today. Liberal tenets have been a basis of thought and action in American politics since well before the signing of the Constitution. Certainly, liberalism has had to transform in order to remain a legitimate force throughout the years. When considering this transformation, one may ask whether or not the ideas and goals of classical liberalism have been lost in the conversion in
Democratic World Government - An Outline Structure
Democratic World Government - An Outline Structure
Democratic World Government - An Outline Structure Introduction - problems and benefits of World Government The idea of world government has not received a good press for many years. It tends to make most of us think of Stalinist dictators and fascist domination of the globe. I wish to argue, though, that there is a viable form of democratic world government which could bring many benefits. A democratic world government that really worked would lead to a major increase in the freedom enjoyed by
Canada - Of The United States Of AMerica
Canada - Of The United States Of AMerica
Canada - Of the United States of AMerica by: Mat Harrison for: Mr. Harkins HCN OA1 The Canadian identity has always been difficult to define. We, as Canadians, have continued to define ourselves by reference to what we are not - American - rather than in terms of our own national history and tradition. This is ironic since the United States is continuing to be allowed by Canadians to take over our economy and literally buy our country. Culturally Canada has its own distinct government and instit
Laws Of War
Laws Of War
Laws of War The term laws of war refers to the rules governing the actual conduct of armed conflict. This idea that there actually exists rules that govern war is a difficult concept to understand. The simple act of war in and of itself seems to be in violation of an almost universal law prohibiting one human being from killing another. But during times of war murder of the enemy is allowed, which leads one to the question, if murder is permissible then what possible laws of war could there
Law Of Nations: An Overview
Law Of Nations: An Overview
Law of Nations: An Overview Human nature consists of three basic components. These are to live, to propagate and to dominate. If Humanity was left without any other parameters, this natural state of existence would govern its behavior. Fortunately, there are parameters that exist. These parameters are law. The topic of this paper addresses the type of law that operates in creating potential boundaries for the behavior of states. This law is called the Law of Nations or international law. Patrick
Gun Control
Gun Control
Gun Control Gun Control can be called the 'acid test' of liberalism. All true liberals must favor stricter gun controls. After all, doesn't the United States have the most heavily armed population on the earth? Are we not the world's most violent people? Surely these facts must be at least casually connected. Therefore the apparently desperate need to do something about the vast quantity of firearms and firearms abuse is obvious. Guns are employed in an enormous number of crimes in this countr
Challenger
Challenger
Challenger It was a cold, crisp, and damp morning on the Florida Space Coast as the space shuttle Challenger raced through the sky at speeds approaching mach 2 at an altitude of 104,000 feet when something went perilously wrong. All of America watched, including the family members of the seven doomed crew members, as Challenger exploded into an expansive ball of fire, smoke and steam. An Oh. . . no! came as the crew?s final utterance from the shuttle as the orbiter broke-up. As the reality of
Capital Punishment
Capital Punishment
Capital Punishment After centuries of nearly universal implementation, the death penalty remains a deeply debated political issue. While one execution takes place, other murders occur, and the question still stands: Will the death penalty safeguard society and deter murder, or will it not? The death penalty cannot be considered a proper economical and moral means of punishment to deter those who might commit capital offenses, or can it? In the past, capital punishment horrified people, which det
Capital Punishment: Against
Capital Punishment: Against
Capital Punishment: Against The use of capital punishment has been a permanent fixture in society since the earliest civilizations and continues to be used as a form of punishment in countries today. It has been used for various crimes ranging from the desertion of soldiers during wartime to the more heinous crimes of serial killers. However, the mere fact that this brutal form of punishment and revenge has been the policy of many nations in the past does not subsequently warrant its implementat
Astronomers
Astronomers
Astronomers Part One Brief Descriptions of the Following Astronomers: Walter Baade : Baade was a German-born American, whose work gave new estimates for the age and size of the universe. During the wartime, blackouts aided his observatons and allowed him to indentify and classify stars in a new and useful way, and led him to increase and improve Hubble's values for the size and age of the universe (to the great relief of geologists.) He also worked on supernovae and radiostars. Milton Humason :
Daisy Miller
Daisy Miller
Daisy Miller Daisy Miller by Henry James Brief Biography of Henry James Henry James was born in New York in 1843. His parents were Henry James Sr. and Mary James. Henry James had three brothers and one sister. Henry James? ancestor, William James, was an 18 year old Irishman who arrived in America in 1789. According to family legend, the ancestor arrived with a very small sum of money and later gained a small fortune through the establishment of a store in New York. Later, he ventured into banki
Crime And Punishment
Crime And Punishment
Crime and Punishment Evil is a character in nature that is marked by bad moral qualities bringing about harm and misfortune. In a rational world, with a superior goal demanding righteousness and peace, evil disrupts society and results in sorrow, distress, or calamity. Evil is an almighty force of nature that has forever corrupted societies relentlessly, never to be halted. As far back as history will tell, evil has shown it's wicked face. Evil has transgressed through centuries, hindering those
Torah Scripture
Torah Scripture
Torah Scripture Introduction to the Torah Scripture Introduction to Scriptures in general and Hebrew Scriptures in particular The Torah A. Introduction to the TorahB. Begin exploring the Torah's themes and content The Torah in the New Testament and the Book of Common Prayer Part I Introduction Scripture In GeneralDoctrine of InspirationThe Bible is: A single Divine revelation, with two Testaments, better called covenants or agreements between God and his people. Three necessary theological const
Religions Spread Through Conquest
Religions Spread Through Conquest
Religions Spread Through Conquest When studying history, both in a professional and academic sense, we try to make connections between civilizations and time periods. Historians have attempted to discover universal conezts of human nature, a bond that forms from continent to continent, human being to human being. Is there a conezt quality that all peoples posses, and is reflected in all civilizations? Indeed, it is extremely difficult to make generalizations about centuries of modern history. To
Sartres Existentialist View
Sartres Existentialist View
Sartre's Existentialist View Jean-Paul Sartre says man is nothing else but what he makes of himself (762). This existentialist view depicts the idea that one is not based on the essence of a soul, but rather, based on decisions made throughout life. Sartre also believes that every man is responsible for all men. One may choose his marriage partner, however, in choosing to marry, one chooses monogamy. Decisions that individuals make will collectively create a set of principles and beliefs for a
Convicting Raskolnikov Dostoevskys Views On Criminal Justice
Convicting Raskolnikov Dostoevskys Views On Criminal Justice
Convicting Raskolnikov Dostoevsky's views on Criminal Justice At the close of Crime and Punishment, Raskolinkov is convicted of Murder and sentenced to seven years in Siberian prison. Yet even before the character was conceived, Fyodor Dostoevsky had already convicted Raskolinkov in his mind (Frank, Dostoevsky 101). Crime and Punishment is the final chapter in Dostoevsky's journey toward understanding the forces that drive man to sin, suffering, and grace. Using ideas developed in Notes from Un
AN ALTERNATIVE FOR PRISON
AN ALTERNATIVE FOR PRISON
AN ALTERNATIVE FOR PRISON America's prisons have been called graduate schools for crime. It stands to reason: Take a group of people, strip them of possessions and privacy, expose them to constant threats of violence, overcrowd their cell- block, deprive them of meaningful work, and the result is an embittered underclass more intent on getting even with society than contributing to it. Prisons take the nonviolent offender and make him live by violence. They take the nonviolent offender and ma
Great Expectations
Great Expectations
Great Expectations There are many common, familiar clichés about illusion versus truth. All that glitters is not gold and Things are seldom what they seem are the most universal hackneyed phrases, but they do not cover entirely every aspect of appearance versus reality. In Charles Dickens' novel, Great Expectations, there are several differences between the illusion and the truth. The appearance of certain things is often detrimental to the outcomes of characters when the reality of a situat
Great Expectations
Great Expectations
Great Expectations There are many common, familiar cliches about illusion versus truth. All that glitters is not gold and Things are seldom what they seem are the most universal hackneyed phrases, but they do not cover entirely every aspect of appearance versus reality. In Charles Dickens' novel, Great Expectations, there are several differences between the illusion and the truth. The appearance of certain things is often detrimental to the outcomes of characters when the reality of a situat
Chaim Potok And The Problem Of Assimilation For The American Jew
Chaim Potok And The Problem Of Assimilation For The American Jew
Chaim Potok and the Problem of Assimilation for the American Jew America has been a country of immigrants since Europeans first settled it over five hundred years ago. America has always faced the problem of assimilation, a challenge faced by every country with a considerable immigrant population. Because immigrants founded America, her culture is a combination of the cultures of other countries. Should these immigrants isolate themselves from the mainstream American culture, or should they sacr
The Crucible
The Crucible
The Crucible As I watched The Crucible taking shape as a movie over much of the past year, the sheer depth of time that it represents for me kept returning to mind. As those powerful actors blossomed on the screen, and the children and the horses, the crowds and the wagons, I thought again about how I came to cook all this up nearly fifty years ago, in an America almost nobody I know seems to remember clearly. In a way, there is a biting irony in this film's having been made by a Hollywood stu
The Beak Of The Finch
The Beak Of The Finch
The Beak of the Finch The Bogus Logic of The Beak People who have served in the Armed Forces may be familiar with the expression, If you can't dazzle then with your brilliance, baffle them with your baloney. The Beak of the Finch uses such laughable logic, it is remarkable that anyone would believe it. The book does such a terrible job of presenting a case for evolution and history, that the only logical conclusion is that the book's true intent is to disprove it. Jonathan Weiner, The Beak of
Comparative Politics
Comparative Politics
Comparative Politics Comparative Politics, typically defined as the study of the internal politics of nations other than our own, is a diverse and complex field. There is no one central tendency or approach which dominates this area of inquiry within political science: various theories, concepts, issues and methodologies are evident in the field. While it is recognized that no simple classification can be made of the literature, we are encouraged to be aware of contrasting approaches, and to en
On The Waterfront
On The Waterfront
On the Waterfront Setting ? The story starts out in the nineteen fifties in a typical small town exploited by the mob. The title On the Waterfront befits it well, for the town?s only way of employment is working on the docks for the mob. The mob controls everything in this town; they are the union and the law. If anything accurs you don?t know anything about it. Even if you were right there you were blind or D D (Deaf and Dumb). Situation ? The situation in the town is that a very prominent man
Fascism And Its Political Ideas
Fascism And Its Political Ideas
Fascism and its Political Ideas Fascism is a form of counter-revolutionary politics that first arose in the early part of the twentieth-century in Europe. It was a response to the rapid social upheaval, the devastation of World War I, and the Bolshevik Revolution. Fascism is a philosophy or a system of government the advocates or exercises a dictatorship of the extreme right, typically through the merging of state and business leadership, together with an ideology of aggressive nationalism. Cele
Locke And The Rights Of Children
Locke And The Rights Of Children
Locke and the Rights of Children Locke firmly denies Filmer's theory that it is morally permissible for parents to treat their children however they please: They who allege the Practice of Mankind, for exposing or selling their Children, as a Proof of their Power over them, are with Sir Rob. happy Arguers, and cannot but recommend their Opinion by founding it on the most shameful Action, and most unnatural Murder, humane Nature is capable of. (First Treatise, sec.56) Rather, Locke argues that
Frederick Douglass Dream For Equality
Frederick Douglass Dream For Equality
Frederick Douglass' Dream for Equality Abolition stopped Frederick Douglass dead in his tracks and forced him to reinvent himself. He learned the hard central truth about abolition. Once he learned what that truth was, he was compelled to tell it in his speeches and writings even if it meant giving away the most secret truth about himself. From then on, he accepted abolition for what it was and rode the fates. The truth he learned about abolition was that it was a white enterprise. It was a fig
Bleeding Ireland And Black America
Bleeding Ireland And Black America
Bleeding Ireland and Black America Fall Road is deserted. Only a few dirt-caked, barefoot, Irishmen can be seen shivering in the adjacent park. We walk past the Catholic neighborhoods knowing, at any moment, buildings might explode and automatic weapon fire could lacerate the air on every side of us. Belfast is charming, apart from the harsh reality of guerrilla warfare and terrorism being common occurrences. For the first time, throughout my three month tour of seventeen different European cou
Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton Alexander Hamilton was born as a British subject on the island of Nevis in the West Indies on the 11th of January 1755. His father was James Hamilton, a Scottish merchant of St. Christopher. His grandfather was Alexander Hamilton, of Grange, Lanarkshire. One of his great grandfathers was Sir R. Pollock, the Laird of Cambuskeith. Hamilton's mother was Rachael Fawcette Levine, of French Huguenot descent. When she was very young, she married a Danish proprietor of St. Croix named
William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare William Shakespeare was a great English playwright, dramatist and poet who lived during the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Shakespeare is considered to be the greatest playwright of all time. No other writer's plays have been produced so many times or read so widely in so many countries as his. Shakespeare was born to middle class parents. His father, John, was a Stratford businessman. He was a glove maker who owned a leather shop. John Shakespeare was a well
Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson Jefferson was born at Shadwell, his father's home in Albemarle county, Va., on April 13, 1743. His father, Peter Jefferson, a man of legendary strength, was a successful planter and surveyor who gained minor title to fame as an explorer and mapmaker. His prominence in his own locality is attested by the fact that he served as a burgess and as county lieutenant. Jefferson later held the same offices. Through his mother, Jane Randolph, a member of
Marcus Garvey
Marcus Garvey
Marcus Garvey We declare to the world that Africa must be free, that the Negro race must be emancipated (p. 137 Altman, Susan. Extraordinary Black Americans.) are the famous words delivered by Marcus Mosiah Garvey. Born a West Indian, he later became a powerful revolutionary who led the nation into the Civil Rights Movement. Garvey dedicated his life to the uplifting of the Negro and to millions of Black people everywhere, he represented dignity and self-respect. Like Malcolm X of a later gene